Today, fossil fuels account for 85% of the world’s energy consumption, emitting large quantities of CO2 into the atmosphere. With global energy demand projected to double by 2050 due to population growth and economic expansion, there is an immediate need for sustainable, cost-effective, and resilient energy solutions to address this escalating environmental and societal crisis. While silicon-based photovoltaic technology has made significant strides over the past four decades, it is nearing its theoretical efficiency limits as described by the Shockley-Queisser limit for single-junction solar cells.

Tandem solar cells, which stack layers of solar cells with varying bandgaps, offer a promising route to exceed these traditional efficiency limits. The swift advancements in perovskite-based solar cells (PSCs) have been particularly transformative. PSCs can be fabricated using economical, solution-based coating methods to produce high-quality, wide-bandgap semiconductors. This makes them ideal for use as the top cell layer in tandem configurations, complemented by other lower-bandgap materials as the bottom cells.

Our research group operates at the intersection of Chemistry, Physics, and Engineering. We are primarily focused on the materials development, assembly techniques, and device-level innovations for perovskite-based tandem solar cells. Our work is organized around three main research pillars:

Materials Innovation

At the heart of this research thrust is the pioneering work we undertake in materials science to unlock new functionalities in photovoltaic devices. Our key focus areas include the development of novel wide-bandgap perovskite absorbers, advanced interface materials, and flexible electrodes. We are also exploring the potential of self-assembled monolayers, two-dimensional materials, and metal oxides for enhanced solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency and device stability. By pushing the boundaries of material properties, we aim to create next-generation perovskite-based tandem solar cells that not only perform better but are also more durable.

Innovative Structures and Assembly Techniques

We are actively investigating innovative approaches for manipulating, processing, and assembling materials to reveal unprecedented optical and electrical characteristics. Our objective is to establish a suite of cost-effective, highly reproducible, and rapid processing methodologies that align with the demands for large-scale and high-throughput production in the solar industry. By marrying cutting-edge science with practical engineering solutions, we aim to revolutionize the capabilities and applications of tandem solar cells.

Advanced Tandem Solar Cells

In this research focus, we synthesize insights from our previous work to develop reliable, efficient, and cost-effective perovskite-tandem solar cells. Our goal is to push the boundaries of solar energy conversion by exploring novel tandem architectures, recombination junctions, electrical contacts, transparent conductive oxides, passivators, and encapsulation methods. By optimizing these elements in tandem solar cell designs, we aim to pave the way for more sustainable and universally accessible energy solutions for the future.

National University of Singapore

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