Article: Japan’s disposable home culture is an environmental and financial headache


This article describes how Japan’s disposable home culture is an environmental burden to the country. Today, a house in Japan has an average lifespan of 30 years, whereby 50% of houses are demolished within 38 years. House value also depreciates to near zero within the first 15 years. Since the past, Japan has been in a cycle of constant house demolition and restoration. During post-World War II period, most structures were destroyed and have to be built from scratch. However, these buildings were not of good quality and have to be rebuilt again. Till today, houses are still repeating this pattern but primarily to suit the government’s building code. This legal regulation will be reviewed every 10 years to adapt to earthquake risk. Instead of spending money to retrofit houses, most people just build new homes. This is not financially viable as people work hard to pay off mortgage that amounts to nothing. Most importantly, this breeds a range of environmental problems, especially for the construction sector.

In the disposable home culture, heaps of construction wastes are produced, and more than 80% of it could be recycled. Since the year 2000, Japan government passed a Law on Recycling of Construction-Related Materials. Concrete waste was recycled as roadbed gravel but there were more discarded concrete than roads available. Consequently, illegal dumping of construction wastes emerges and this accounts for 70% of illegally discarded waste nationwide. Even if waste were to be recycled, the process itself is energy exhaustive and yields less valuable materials than the ones discarded. To top it all, Japanese view houses as perishable and thus neglects proper maintenance of houses. Aggregating all these factors together, the construction industry is not environmentally friendly. Statistics shows the construction sector being the top emitter of carbon dioxide in Japan, releasing 244.78 million metric tons of carbon dioxide.

It is tough for Japan to withdraw from this cycle, as their preference for wood as building material is a cultural phenomenon. This bandwagon effect is influenced by Japanese perception of nature, whereby their environment is considered benevolent. To maximize contact between inner and outer environments, the Japanese tend to rebuild their dwellings to adjust living spaces for changing conditions (Murato, 1985). Hence, wood as a major structural ingredient was chosen for its reproducibility and easy usage. However, most timber homes are made from imported woods, despite Japan being heavily forested. This inflates the carbon footprint of the construction industry, making it a culturally driven environmental problem.

One solution proposed by the author is to stop promoting home ownership, which corresponds to a 200-year home law. This would avert the need for houses to meet building standards and non-compliance would not warrant its people to pay tax. Providing more condominiums is a good option too. Additionally, renovation companies can promote green buildings and longer-lasting homes to create this necessary shift.



1) Braw, E. (2014, May 2). Japan’s disposable home culture is an environmental and financial headache. Retrieved from

2) Laws and Support Systems for Promoting Waste Recycling in Japan. (n.d.). Retrieved from

3) Murota, Y. 1985. Culture and the environment in Japan. Environmental management, 9(2), 105-111.

A Ruling to Protect Whales

The Editorial Board. (2014). A Ruling to Protect Whales. The New York Times, The Opinion Pages, April 1, 2014. Last Assessed October 26, 2014 at

In this article, Japan was slapped with orders by the International Whaling Commission to stop its whaling activities in the Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary. Japan faced international condemnation for its killing of endangered whale species, and its scientific whaling programs were dismissed as fronts for commercial whaling, in light of a lack of visible results coming from such research. This article is evidently written in favor of the IWC, with the writer justifying the IWC “rightly [ordering] Japan to stop its whaling activities” and the writer advising Japan to stop its whaling activities so as to avoid further public condemnation.

This article is interesting because it presents a case of Japan being portrayed in a very negative light with regards to its relation with nature – i.e. its interaction with whales and its practice of whaling is condemned and seen as being un-environmental, a picture very unlike that we have seen in other aspects of the environmental discourse, where the Japanese tend to be lauded as an example to follow – in waste disposal, efficient energy usage and the like. Here, Japan does not come across as a national in harmony with nature, but rather existing in opposition to nature, whereby its relation with nature is characterized by unsustainable extraction and exploitation of nature.

At the same time, we see quite a bit of discrepancy and inconsistencies in the IWC’s logic behind conservation and anti-whaling. The ruling of the IWC was justified on the grounds of protecting endangered species, and Japan was issued a court order to revoke all whaling licenses. Yet, the four species of whales targeted for Japanese research – Minke, Sei, Bryde’s and Sperm – are not considered endangered despite their subjection to heavy whaling[1]. It is then questionable as to why these whale species should be protected from whaling activities, and questions the rationale behind IWC’s rulings. A representative of New Zealand was quoted saying that “The size of the whale populations is irrelevant. My government’s policy is that not a single whale should be killed; I ask the IWC to adopt measures in harmony with this policy.[2]“Such discrepancies in data and discourse cast more ambiguity on the issue of whaling and the rationale behind it.

While attitudes towards nature are critical in ensuring that human-nature interactions are carried out in a sustainable manner, the issue of whaling also reveals how interactions with nature are greatly determined by the society’s view on nature and the tendency to assign value to certain aspects of nature over others[3]. It also sheds light on how nature resources can be understood very differently by different people(s) based on history/ culture etc., thereby throwing into question the applicability of using international yardsticks to judge how green or how in sync with nature a country is.

[1] Status of Whales, International Whaling Commission website. Last Assessed October 26, 2014 at

[2] Nagasaki, Fukuzo. 1994. Pro- and Anti- Whaling Attitudes as Revealed in Public Opinion Pall, Public Perception of Whaling, ICR, 1994. Last Assessed October 26, 2014 at

[3] Kirby, Peter Wynn. (2011). Troubled Natures: Waste, Environment, Japan. University of Hawai’i Press, p. 71.


Restarting of nuclear plant reactors: Whose responsibility?

Name of article: Responsibility for reactor restarts a hot potato


This article highlights the question on where the responsibility lies with regards to the plans to restart two reactors at Kyushu Electric Power Co’s nearby Sendai nuclear plant, which is located about 50 kilometers from Mount Sakurajima, an active volcano. The authority has repeatedly claimed that natural disasters like volcanic eruptions are unpredictable.  Following the meltdowns at the Fukashima Daiichi plant and eruption of Mount Ontake, concerns from the public, regarding the operational safety checks, has escalated. The public’s attention has fallen on the regulators, with many accusing them of being inadequate in the management of nuclear disasters. However, the both the government and the Nuclear Regulation Authority (NRA) refused to take up responsibility of the touchy issue.

Being positioned on the “Ring of Fires” with more than 100 active volcanoes, it is literally impossible to prevent the occurrence of natural disasters. Furthermore, it is simply impossible to find a location that is hundred percent safe and economically viable to build a nuclear plant. Japan is constantly struggling with the need to uphold its “green nation” slogan and keep up with the world’s economy at the same time. Nevertheless, the trade off between environmental sustainability and economical progress has always been a challenge that most modern nations face. However, what that put Japan in an even more difficult position is its geographical constraints. It is necessary for Japan to activate nuclear power to reduce imports of “expensive fossil fuels, pushing electricity bills higher”, if the nation wants to achieve economic efficiently. From this aspect, the government is definitely more relevant in the matter of restarting the reactors.

 Obtaining nuclear power comes with a risk that is entirely unavoidable. One would not find fault with the occurrence of natural disasters, as it does not jeopardize the notion of “greenness” of a nation. In fact, it is part of the green and nature environment. However, what is problematic is the presence of human civilization in the midst of the greeneries. In light of the article, the greenness of Japan is only compromised when nuclear power intersects with the aftermath of a natural disaster. Therefore, as long as humans exists within the Japan’s national boundary, the demand for rapid economic development is nonnegotiable and Japanese have to be prepared to embrace the environmental threats that comes along with it.  In this case, the responsibility essentially falls on the government, since the national interest is at stake. The NRA can be viewed as merely an actor in the facilitation of the national economy.

Surplus green energy eyed for fuel cell cars in Japan

Name of article: Surplus green energy eyed for fuel cell cars in Japan


My article is about a model project started by the Environment Ministry of Japan in which surplus electricity generated from renewable energy sources, such as wind and solar power will be utilized to produce hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles. A growing number of companies in the solar and wind power generation industries have established their business bases in Hokkaido, whose wide, open spaces are well suited to the setup of solar panels and wind turbines. It also highlights the benefit of utilizing power from renewable energy sources, stating that this would result in “lower carbon dioxide emissions than producing hydrogen from fossil fuels.” The government has set a target of building 100 hydrogen filling stations by the end of fiscal 2015, and also plans to install solar panels at these stations so hydrogen can be produced on-site. This project also coincides with Toyota’s introduction of its fuel cell vehicles on the market by 2015. Executives at Germany’s Volkswagen have also said that fuel cell vehicles are unlikely to catch on outside Japan, where the government wants a “hydrogen society” with fuel cells powering offices, homes, and cars.

In doing this, Japan perpetuates its “green” image by showing its aim to maximize the use of green energy and even using surplus power, as well as spreading the use of fuel cell vehicles. It paints a very idealistic picture of the project, only presenting the ministry’s plans and ideas in a positive light, without any mention of any possible problems or setbacks this project might face, or the responses of Japanese society. This also helps to boost the Japanese government’s public image, through demonstrating their efforts in becoming more environmentally friendly and the increasing use of renewable and greener energy sources, especially with the controversy over nuclear power. However, it remains to be seen whether Japan’s society will embrace fuel cell vehicles.

Also, although using renewable energy sources and producing hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles may appear to be more environmentally friendly as compared to using fossil fuels or nuclear energy, the establishment of solar panels, wind turbines and business bases by companies in places like Hokkaido with an abundance of wide open spaces are affecting nature and the environment. This echoes Kalland and Asquith’s point that “environmental features falling outside the valued aesthetic and symbolic boundaries tended to be ignored, considered irrelevant, or judged unappealing”, and “Japan’s appreciation for nature was limited and idealized.” This is demonstrated in how Hokkaido’s green plains are not seen as “aesthetically pleasing” in any way, and hence conveniently ignored, eventually being removed and replaced by industrial companies and solar panels or wind turbines. It accentuates the contradictory stance Japan has towards nature, where they ironically destroy nature to appear “environmentally conscious and friendly” by establishing alternative energy sources.


Asquith, P. J. and Kalland, A. 1997. ‘Japanese Perceptions of Nature: Ideals and Illusions,’ in Japanese Images of Nature: Cultural Perspectives ed. Asquith, P. J. and Kalland, A., Curzon Press, UK: 1-35.


Gov’t approves train line despite environmental concerns

Name of article: Gov’t approves JR Tokai plan to build maglev line


This article from the online newspaper, Japan Today, reports that the Japanese government has just approved the construction of an ultra-fast train using the magnetic levitation technology from Tokyo to Nagoya, despite environmental concerns.

The train will reach a top speed of more than 500 km/hour, cutting the travel time with one hour to being just 40 minutes. Construction will be undertaken in early 2015 by The Central Japan Railway Company (JR Tokai) and is expected to be complete in 2027 and cost 5.5 trillion yen, equal to 64.3 billion Singapore dollars.

The article tells that the plan has been praised by the government for its expected massive benefits on economy, connectivity and tourism for cities along the route. However it also mentions that concerns have been raised on the environmental impacts from the construction and the long-term operational effects.  As nearly 90 per cent of the 286-kilometer travel distance will be through tunnels there will be a lot of surplus soil from the excavations, and the article both refers to the transport minister and the Environment Ministry worrying about this issue, and the environment ministry furthermore asking JR Tokai for more info on the project’s impact on groundwater running down from the mountains.

It is noteworthy that the article really does not question how the project can be approved while even the public authorities have important unanswered questions on environmental impacts. And this article is actually among the only articles describing the approved plans, which elaborates on the environmental concerns. To me, this implies that the environmentally concerns are naturally subordinated to the economic concerns in this case, which we also found in some of the large construction cases involving nuclear plants and dams.

In other sources, some people have also raised concerns that once operational, the 286 km route with only four stops on the way will accelerate the concentration of the nation’s resources and activities in Tokyo. Having learned of the decreasing population and increasing urbanization and its implications for the rural areas as well as for the average Japanese’s relation to nature, one understands this concern.

Further readings and reference points:

Conversation on renewable supply and utilities’ demands


Article: Green power surge reveals contradiction in renewable supply, utilities’ demands

The article is about the positive growth of renewable electricity in Japan has encountered stagnation. Recently, Kyushu Electric, Okinawa Electric, Shikoku Electric, Tohoku Electric and Hokkaido Electric have announced to suspend their purchases under the feed-in-tariff (FIT) policy. To ensure the stable income of renewable energy companies, this policy requires Japan’s major power utilities to purchase all electricity which generated by green sources at certain fixed rates set by government. According to power firms, green electricity could be result in blackouts, causing by unstable output of electricity due to weather fluctuations and insufficient capacity of grid to transmit the oversupply of electricity.

From the article, it seems that Japan (especially Japanese government) is changing its image from ‘nuclear state Japan’ to ‘going green Japan’. As McCormack (2011) mentions, the struggles between Japan’s nuclear bureaucracy and civil society has entered into new era after 2011 Fukushima nuclear incident. 3 years later, Japan shows distinct growth in using renewable power and aims to achieve 30 percent of renewable energy in total electricity production by 2030. However, in the article, some people critics that these power utilities have strong desires on reopen the nuclear plants with the say that they require stable, efficient and cost-effective power supply. It shows the inconsistency of the blueprints among the nation and the region’s power utilities.

On top of that, the article shows two contradiction sides of Japan energy: green, eco-friendly and economical, profit driven. After the FIT policy was introduced, there were 11 gigawatt of renewable-power capacity (98% solar power) went online, tapping on high profit growth (Iwata 2014). As mentioned above, current grid does not have enough capacity to transmit the unstable electricity. The power utilities also claim that the demand of solar power is not as high as the expectation and question on the economic sustainability of upgrading the grid. To prompt the future of renewable energy even worse, METI has cut incentives on the solar projects in order to import fossil fuels. With the restrictions of region’s power firms, the renewable power firms might undergo a slow growth in the future.

In conclude, it could not simply assert any conclusion on the prospects of nuclear energy and renewable energy; the topic is still an ongoing debate. If the government wants to achieve the goal and assure the optimistic growth of renewable energy, it is important to ensure the stands of region’s power utilities are on the same page.


Iwana, M. Oct 2014. ‘Japan to Examine Solar-Power Bottlenecks’. Retrieved from Wall Street Journal on 17 Oct 2014:

McCormack, G. Sept 2011. ‘Hubris Punished: Japan as Nuclear State’. Synthesis/Regeneration: 56. WD Press: 39-42.


Additional Info:

Reuters. Oct 2014. ‘As Japan eyes nuclear restarts, renewables get shut out of grid’. Web link:

The Asahi Shimbun. Oct 2014. ‘Editorial: Measures needed to prevent renewable energy boom from going bust’. Web link:

A renewed emphasis on geothermal power generation

Article: Japan’s first new geothermal power plant in 15 years to open next month


The news article announces a new geothermal power plant that is scheduled to open in April this year, Japan’s first one since 1999. The power plant is located in Kumamoto prefecture on Kyushu Island, and is built by the Chuo Electric Power Co. The article states that this is just the start of a string of other geothermal projects by several companies on top of Chuo Electric alone.

In the article, Japan is represented as a nation with a rich, abundant source of geothermal energy, since Japan has many volcanoes. Yet there has been low usage of geothermal power due to strong resistance from local communities of potential sites, and many such sites are located in government-protected national parks.

Geothermal energy is considered a “green” or greener source of sustainable energy, and is commonly touted as an alternative to relying on fossil fuels. Furthermore, geothermal energy is one of the few renewable energy technologies that can supply continuous power 24 hours a day (Union of Concerned Scientists). Japan’s renewed emphasis on geothermal energy is forward-looking as it allows the supply of energy with the “lowest environmental impact possible” (Demetriou, 2014).

Critically analyzing the representation of Japan as going greener, while it is true that geothermal energy is a cleaner and greener source of energy, it has its fair share of environmental risks that are not covered in the article. The construction of geothermal power plants significantly increase the possibility of earthquakes as the land is made unstable, and the release of toxic gases and metals are associated with geothermal reservoirs (Maehlum, 2013). The impacts of the new plant, and subsequent ones being planned, on the host communities and their environment, are unknown.

Secondly, it is mentioned in the article that many plants currently planned are circumventing local opposition to geothermal plants by scaling down the size of the plant and promising to revitalize the towns. Yet many plants have plans to expand their operations after they are launched. This brings to mind Aldrich’s article in which he asserts Japanese leaders view public opinion as malleable, and seek to align public opinion with national goals (Aldrich, 2012). Similarly, the opening of geothermal plants is a venture by the industry and highly supported by the government, at the risk of ignoring local environmental concerns.

Should the industry and government go ahead with geothermal energy without sufficient safety plans and engagement with the local community to adequately inform them of possible risks, a similar ‘safety myth’ could occur in these areas with new power plants (Onishi, 2011). It remains to be seen whether this renewed emphasis on geothermal energy would be a blessing or a curse to post-Fukushima Japan.


Aldrich, D. P. (2012). Networks of Power: Institutions and local residents in post-Tohoku Japan. In J. Kingston, Natural Disaster and Nuclear Crisis in Japan (pp. 127-139). London & New York: Routledge.

Demetriou, D. (2014, Mar 16). Japan’s first new geothermal power plant in 15 years to open next month. Retrieved from The Telegraph:

Maehlum, M. A. (2013, June 1). Geothermal Energy Pros and Cons. Retrieved from Energy Informative:

Onishi, N. (2011, June 24). ‘Safety Myth’ Left Japan Ripe for Nuclear Crisis. Retrieved from The New York Times:

Union of Concerned Scientists. How Geothermal Energy Works. Retrieved from Union of Concerned Scientists:

Fun Ways to Teach Kids Eco-Friendly Concepts

Article: Fun Ways to Teach Kids Eco-Friendly Concepts

Mirai Hotaru Day (of which I loosely translate as Future Firefly Day) is an event organized by the Kitakyushu Environment Museum, said to heighten environmental awareness and to promote environmentally-friendly practices. As discussed by Kalland and Asquith (1997), nature is often polarized in two extreme ideals – domesticated and declawed or wild and bristling – with reality situating itself somewhere within the continuum. Nature as discussed within the article, and within the context of Mirai Hotaru Day, comes off as a haphazardly repackaged rawness – with talk of “global warming, nuclear energy, deforestation, pollution, toxic waste” (Kikuchi 2014).

In this representation of nature, both its destructiveness and its fragility are addressed. Acknowledging the very human faults behind environmental issues, the article claims that “teaching future generations not to repeat the mistakes we made needs a soft touch” (Kikuchi 2014). Following the driving cause and aspirations of Mirai Hotaru Day, the contents of the article, and the event, seem somewhat lacking. With reference to the muraokoshi undo movement, Moon (1997: 221) states that ‘[in] this fervent, often short-sighted and desperate desire to develop a tourist industry, anything that is thought to attract urbanites’ attention has been ‘wrapped’, advertised and sold as tourist commodities, and nature has been no exception”. Analysing the language used to advertise Mirai Hotaru Day, parallels can be drawn to the muraokoshi undo movement in its commodification of nature.

The propagandistic use of words ‘Mirai Hotaru’ is a clear case of glittering generalities and symbolic transfer. Both ‘future’ and ‘firefly’ are loaded words, aiming to evoke a sense of hope and an illusion of purity. Moon (1997: 224) posits “the existence of the insect […] as a symbol of unpolluted nature”. Further examination of Mirai Hotaru Day makes it clear that environmentalism remains prominently a form of branding.

Activities such as making kites or creating scented bath bombs from organic materials have little relation to the promotion of environmental protection. While it is arguable that soft selling the idea might be more effective with children, it can hardly be considered a ‘soft sell’ when aspects of environmental awareness are near invisible. Even the “highlight of the event […] a giant art installation resembling a starry sky, which visitors are asked to contribute to by adding their hand prints as symbols of hope for a better future” (Kikuchi 2014) presents an overly romanticized, prettied up caricature of mankind’s past interactions with nature, leaving the message lost under all its frills and fripperies.


Asquith, P. J. and Kalland, A. 1997. ‘Japanese Perceptions of Nature: Ideals and Illusions,’ in Japanese Images of Nature: Cultural Perspectives ed. Asquith, P. J. and Kalland, A., Curzon Press, UK: 1-35.

Kikuchi, D. 2014. ‘Fun ways to teach kids eco-friendly concepts’, The Japan Times, 15 May 2014.

Moon, O. 1997. ‘Marketing Nature in Rural Japan,’ in Japanese Images of Nature: Cultural Perspectives ed. Asquith, P. J. and Kalland, A., Curzon Press, UK: 221-235.

Kiun-kaku – Using Traditions to Reflect a Love for Nature

Article: Kiun-Kaku: a garden of elegant period taste

“Japanese love of nature, as well as the Japanese idea of Japanese love of nature, revolves partly around nostalgia for what are considered traditional relations with nature” (Kirby, 2011:69). This article presents a quintessential icon of what Kirby posits as “Japanese love of nature” – Japanese gardens.

The article puts forth a strong sense of tradition as it explains the changing styles of Japanese gardens throughout Japanese history from the Heian period to the 20th century. In the specific example of Kiun-kaku, its garden is seen to embody “the tastes and values of” gardens from the Meiji and Taisho period. It boasts of how this simulated environment comes into contiguity with the architecture, and how the garden departs from an art form to arrive at something that is close to nature itself. This appears to be representative of Japanese as being “both one with nature and able to act against nature from the outside” (Kalland and Asquith, 1997:10).

However, it should be noted that the Kiun-kaku, originally a private villa of a businessman, has been transformed into a tourist attraction. As gardens and green landscape become a part of tourism and attractions, it becomes an environment that is separated from people’s daily lives. It is marketed as an attraction that is not readily available and “an object to be sold as well as to be protected as some sort of ‘limited good'” (Moon, 1997:233). This ironically enhances the image of a green Japan because tourists who go to Japan visit these attractions as do the local Japanese who use these images as “mirrors” to ascertain an identity that encompasses a love for nature (Kirby, 2011:71). Yet, this gives rise to an increased distinction between what is simply an image of loving nature and actual actions that contribute to loving nature.

Another theme that is brought up in the article is the relationship of wealth and nature. In isolating this space as an attraction, this greenery is marketed as something that is appreciated only if one has the time and money to. Moreover, the intricacies of garden landscaping require space that urbanites do not have the luxury to own unless they are wealthy. Apart from gardens, material forms of nature, in general, require space which is a scarce resource in urban areas (as mentioned in the news article on the Tokyo Olympics).

In this case, Japanese gardens provide a channel for Japanese to reaffirm their love for greenery but its increasing exclusiveness to the wealthy renders it to be more of a traditional icon alluding to Japanese identity than a representation of current day Japanese attitude towards nature.


Kalland, Arne and Asquith, Pamela. 1997. “Japanese Perceptions of Nature: Ideals and Illusions,” in Japanese Images of Nature: Cultural Perspectives, ed. Arne Kalland and Pamela Asquith, Curzon Press, UK: 1-35.

Kirby, Peter W. 2011. Troubled natures: waste, environment, Japan, University of Hawai’i Press, Honolulu.

Moon, Okpyo. 1997. “Marketing Nature in Rural Japan,” in Japanese Images of Nature: Cultural Perspectives, ed. Arne Kalland and Pamela Asquith, Curzon Press, UK: 221-235.

Volcanic eruption fires concern about Kagoshima Reactors restarts

The article is regarding how the recent eruption by Mount Ontake in Nagano prefecture creating concerns about volcano eruptions in Kagoshima Prefecture that might hinder any restarting of the Nuclear reactors in Kagoshima Prefecture. This is in light of the current situation in Japan which officials are still trying to gain back public support for nuclear power and just in August 2014, 2 reactors in Satsumasendai, Kagoshima Prefecture was given the green light by Nuclear Regulatory Authority to be restarted.

The article mentioned that Kyushu Electric says that the eruption by Mount Ontake should not affect the decision to restart the nuclear reactors as the safety measures implemented are prepared for larger scale eruption as compared to Mount Ontake.  However, there are 11 active volcanos around the area, this actually increases the risk of an eruption affecting the operations of the nuclear plants in the area.  This concern is also shown in the change in attitude for the people. As the article reported, there is large number of 7500 people gathered on 26th September to protest the reopening of the Sendai reactors which was said to be the largest demonstration seen thus far. By referring to week 7 lessons, it was said that the Japanese had been taught to obey authorities but with the Fukushima incident as a learning point. It would seem that the Japanese had learned to question certain actions that the government is taking especially with issues that concern not just a region but rather the whole of Japan.

In addition to that, there is also improvement on the government part where they are less inclined to ignore public views in going through with their policy. From the article, despite how much the government head of Kagoshima wanted to restart the reactors, they are waiting to seek the public approval and not just from their own town but the towns that are around the nuclear reactors that could be potentially affected by the restarting of the nuclear plants. This is also supported by the reading in week7 by Aldrich, Nuclear future that Japan had been going forward with their nuclear plans despite local and national opposition since mid-1950s which is a big change compared then and now.

In conclusion, issues in Japan are generally the same with the government being pro-nuclear and the citizens being less inclined to use nuclear power but I would like to pose a question to end this off. Is it truly necessary/unnecessary for Japan to use nuclear power considering Japan’s current situation. This question is likely to be best answered by Japan whom is facing this crisis but the world will look towards them for lessons on how to overcome a nuclear crisis.



Daniel P. Aldrich. 2012. Networks of Power