One Man’s Cure is Everybody’s Poison

Last week, we discussed the problems with antibiotics and how municipal wastewater treatment plants(WWTP) like ours worsen the spread of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant genes(ARG) and antibiotic-resistant bacteria(ARB) into the environment.

This week, we expand our scope on pollutants to the subset of WHO’s persistent organic pollutants that encompass antibiotics, biocidal compounds, pharmaceuticals and endocrine disruptors; which I’ll term as bio-disruptive organic compounds (BOC) for the purpose of this post.

BES folks might recognise endocrine disruptors as an emerging pollutant in freshwater systems; but for the sake of those unaware, these BOCs alter hormone levels in organisms in a way that causes harm to the organism, its offspring, or those around them(Bergman, Heindel, Jobling, Kidd, & Zoeller, 2012; Godfray et al., 2019).

As the term “emerging pollutant” might allude to, new endocrine disruptors and BOCs are being discovered or manufactured(Bergman et al., 2012). Some of these originate from completely unintuitive sources: I mean, imagine flame retardants changing your hormone levels(Godfray et al., 2019)! I wouldn’t even have thought to look there for BOCs!

Not to mention, household products (especially plastics, glues, lubricating oils) contain plasticizers like phthalates, BPA and flame retardants like Polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDE) that are also endocrine disruptors(Monneret, 2017).

Yes…even I’m guilty.
Plastic containers, lubricants, and even vinyl flooring contain BOCs that can be washed into our sewers(Monneret, 2017).

Think about it, every time you wash your utensils, ride a public bus or wash your floor: we are washing BOCs down our sewers. With all due respect to PUB, our municipal WWTPs are still under-equipped to ensure complete and utter removal of all BOCs from our wastewater stream(Sui et al., 2015). I must stress utter removal because BOC concentrations of parts per trillion(ppt) are still harmful(Godfray et al., 2019).

Remember our 4 national taps? Yep, that same catchment water Sui et al (2015) found BOCs in bounces straight back at us. Of course, nothing is happening to our aquatic ecosystems or drinking water as of yet; but we can’t say with certainty that there will not be an ARB outbreak., an emergent BOC contamination, or any side effects of chronic exposure to BOCs

No point crying over spilt drugs, let’s talk solutions. The problem? Elevated concentrations of Diclofenac and Carbamazepine in ppt to ppb, and Caffeine in ppb to ppm; found around the Jurong Lake Catchment(Tran, Li, Hu, & Ong, 2014).

While there probably won’t be a universal solution to eliminate these BOCs from our wastewater, there is a particular pilot test that achieved significant results in a context analogous to Singapore’s WWTPs that I would like to present. A pilot plant utilising a novel technology, known as Membrane Distillation(MD), was implemented at Swedish WWTP as an alternative to an existing reverse osmosis array for the purpose of pharmaceutical wastewater treatment(Fortkamp et al., 2015). To put it simply, instead of using high pressures to squeeze water through a porous membrane, a selective hydrophilic membrane that only allows vaporised wastewater through is used.

The pilot managed to reduce Diclofenac, Carbamazepine, and Caffeine concentrations to below 3 ppt(Fortkamp et al., 2015). However, outstanding costs for heating wastewater was identified(Fortkamp et al., 2015). Fortunately, since PUB’s WWTPs recycles biogas for energy generation, a similar MD system with virtually no extra energy expenditure may be possible!

A possible opportunity to install a membrane distillation unit in our WWTPs. Source:

^Back to the Top^


Bergman, Å., Heindel, J., Jobling, S., Kidd, K., & Zoeller, R. T. (2012). State-of-the-science of endocrine disrupting chemicals, 2012. Toxicology Letters.

Fortkamp, U., Royen, H., Klingspor, M., Ekengren, Ö., Martin, A., & Woldemariam, D. M. (2015). Membrane Distillation pilot tests for different wastewaters.In IVL Report B 2236:…/B2236.pdf

Godfray, H. C. J., Stephens, A. E. A., Jepson, P. D., Jobling, S., Johnson, A. C., Matthiessen, P., … McLean, A. R. (2019). A restatement of the natural science evidence base on the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals on wildlife. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences.

Monneret, C. (2017). What is an endocrine disruptor? Comptes Rendus – Biologies.

Sui, Q., Cao, X., Lu, S., Zhao, W., Qiu, Z., & Yu, G. (2015). Occurrence, sources and fate of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in the groundwater: A review. Emerging Contaminants.

Tran, N. H., Li, J., Hu, J., & Ong, S. L. (2014). Occurrence and suitability of pharmaceuticals and personal care products as molecular markers for raw wastewater contamination in surface water and groundwater. Environmental Science and Pollution Research.

Additional Note:

If you would like to read more about Membrane Distillation, check out this book at National Libraries!

Specifically, pages 305-350. Really interesting stuff!


^Back to the Top^


5,355 thoughts on “One Man’s Cure is Everybody’s Poison

  1. Thejacketmaster jackets aren’t just pieces of clothing; they have a personality of their own. Each jacket tells a story and becomes a part of your journey. bomber jacket

  2. 女性按摩棒是常用的性愛用品,由一個具有彈性的柄部和一個用於刺激陰道和外生殖器的振動頭部組成。 按摩棒常用於在性生活中提供快感和刺激,幫助女性達到高潮。

  3. Rajendra Law Office Chennai is a renowned law firm that specializes in various areas of law. The firm has a team of highly skilled and experienced attorneys who are proficient in representing clients in different courts.  IP Attorneys in Chennai

  4. Having immersed ourselves thoroughly in the blog’s content, its undeniable appeal shines through. We wish to express our heartfelt gratitude to the author, who represents Rental Office Spaces, for their invaluable contribution. The blog adeptly delves into the concept of rental office spaces, presenting them as versatile workspace solutions that empower both businesses and individuals to lease or rent fully furnished office areas for rental office space predetermined periods. These spaces typically come equipped with essential amenities like desks, chairs, internet access, and often feature shared facilities such as meeting rooms, kitchenettes, and reception areas.

  5. Wow! Such an amazing and helpful post this is. I really really love it. It’s so good and so awesome. I am just amazed. I hope that you continue to do your work like this in the future also churches near me

  6. If you are looking for a new local church or just visiting an area, use our Stir The Hope custom search to find the best Christian churches, including events, Christian church reviews, church service times, fellowship bible studies, and more, all to help you discover a place of worship that cater to your unique requirements. Please help others by rating and writing a review about churches you have visited. List your church if it’s not listed! encouraging bible verses

  7. Blijf op de hoogte van de Google richtlijnen om je website optimaal te maken en hoog te scoren in de Google zoekresultaten in IJmuiden en omgeving. Zorg ervoor dat externe websites veilige linkpraktijken volgen om je website te versterken. Zoekmachine optimalisatie is van cruciaal belang om nieuwe klanten aan te trekken. Hoe hoger je in Google staat als ondernemer in IJmuiden, hoe meer relevante bezoekers je zult aantrekken. best breakfast seminyak

  8. After conducting a thorough review of the blog, we have found it to be exceptionally captivating. On behalf of logoinhours, we wish to extend our heartfelt appreciation to the author for this invaluable contribution. When creating a logo for an electric company, it is crucial to encapsulate the logo for electric company essence of their services. Consider a design that seamlessly incorporates elements such as lightning bolts, power lines, or lightbulbs to effectively symbolize electricity and energy.

  9. Welcome to, your one-stop shop for unique vouchers and discount codes. We know how exciting it is to save money and find the finest bargains, which is why we have compiled a massive selection of discount codes to help you shop smarter and stretch your budget farther. amazon discount code

  10. Hi, I do think your website could possibly be having browser compatibility problems. Whenever I take a look at your website in Safari, it looks fine however, when opening in Internet Explorer, it’s got some overlapping issues. I simply wanted to give you a quick heads up! Apart from that, fantastic blog! You’re so interesting! I do not think I’ve truly read something like that before. So wonderful to discover another person with a few unique thoughts on this topic. Seriously.스포츠토토
    . thank you for starting this up. This web site is one thing that is needed on the web, someone with a bit of originality!

  11. After a comprehensive examination of the blog content, we are genuinely captivated by its richness. On behalf of PANOCEAN LIMITED, we wish to express our profound appreciation to the writer for their remarkable contribution. The article delves into the significance of Mongla Port, a mongla port crucial seaport situated along the Bay of Bengal in Bangladesh. This port serves as a pivotal conduit for international trade, handling a diverse spectrum of cargo, including bulk commodities, containers, and industrial materials.

  12. After a thorough read of the blog, we find it genuinely captivating. We wish to express our heartfelt appreciation to the author for their invaluable contribution on behalf of Primary Care Physician Sugar Land. A primary care physician in your vicinity serves as the initial point of contact for general primary care physician near me healthcare needs, offering a comprehensive range of services, including regular check-ups, preventive care, diagnosis and treatment of common ailments, and management of chronic conditions. These physicians play a pivotal role in monitoring your overall health and making referrals to specialists when necessary.

  13. Sourcelearns is the number one online media site in USA managed Source Digital Online. Sourcelearns with a network spread across USA called Source Network. Which is headquartered in California is a medium for accelerating digital transformation. We are here to provide information.

  14. es ist wirklich eine erstaunliche post und teilt eine große Informationen. ich bin auf aktuelle Schrottpreise arbeiten. Sie können mehr lesen hier

  15. BeYourLover源自日本的成人用品女性按摩棒成人玩具商店,我們性商店提供各種高品質的女性震蛋、按摩棒、男用自慰套我們的成人用品商店帶給您最好的性體驗生活。

  16. Upon careful examination of the blog, we are truly captivated by its content. We want to convey our heartfelt gratitude to the author, who represents Houston Emergency Room, for their invaluable contribution. The blog illuminates the concept of a 24-hour emergency clinic, a healthcare 24 hours emergency clinic. facility that operates continuously, offering immediate medical care and attention. These clinics remain open at all times, ready to assist patients with urgent medical needs.

  17. Om hoger te ranken in de zoekmachine van Google, zijn er verschillende strategieën die je moet overwegen. Het optimaliseren van de inhoud van je website met hoogwaardige zoekwoorden die relevant zijn voor de zoekopdrachten van mensen is de eerste stap. Daarnaast is het belangrijk om een linkbuilding strategie te implementeren om hoogwaardige backlinks van andere websites te verkrijgen. Het opbouwen van links van betrouwbare bronnen zal je pagina-autoriteit en betrouwbaarheid in de ogen van Google vergroten, waardoor je uiteindelijk beter zult scoren. Vergeet niet om consistent te blijven en je SEO-strategieën regelmatig te evalueren en bij te werken. Met toewijding en hard werken zul je sneller resultaten zien dan je denkt! Om hoger te ranken in Google is zoekwoordoptimalisatie alleen niet voldoende. Om je positie op de zoekresultatenpagina (SERP) te verbeteren, moet je meer bezoekers uit Hoofddorp naar je website trekken en je inhoud goed optimaliseren voor SEO. Het verbeteren van de zichtbaarheid van je website en het verkrijgen van meer organisch verkeer kan bereikt worden door ervoor te zorgen dat je website correct geïndexeerd is, unieke en relevante inhoud heeft, backlinks creëert en optimaliseert voor mobiel. best dinner Seminyak

  18. This is very interesting content! I have thoroughly enjoyed reading your points and have come to the conclusion that you are right about many of them. You are great. bonuses

  19. After a careful and thorough reading of the blog, we found it to be genuinely captivating. We want to express our sincere appreciation to the author for their invaluable contribution, representing Graphic Designer in Austin. The term “Graphic designers near me” pertains to skilled professionals in your local vicinity who specialize in crafting visual content, including logos, branding materials, websites, advertisements, and more. These graphic designers near me designers possess the expertise and artistic flair needed to effectively convey ideas and messages through visuals.

  20. “Absolutely loving this #ScotOutfits ensemble! The tartan pattern brings such a timeless charm, and the traditional elements are beautifully complemented by modern touches. The attention to detail is evident, making this outfit a perfect tribute to Scottish heritage while staying stylish and comfortable. hussar jacket

  21. I found this is an informative and interesting post so i think so it is very useful and knowledgeable. I would like to thank you for the efforts you have made in writing this article. mt5 ea

  22. It’s appropriate time to make some plans for the future and it is time to be happy. I have read this post and if I could I wish to suggest you few interesting things or advice. Perhaps you could write next articles referring to this article. I desire to read even more things about it! forex

  23. I’ve read some good stuff here. Definitely worth bookmarking for revisiting. I surprise how much effort you put to create such a great informative website. metatrader

  24. Wow, excellent post. I’d like to draft like this too – taking time and real hard work to make a great article. This post has encouraged me to write some posts that I am going to write soon. expert advisor

  25. I am jovial you take pride in what you write. It makes you stand way out from many other writers that can not push high-quality content like you. forex

  26. Bienvenue sur notre blog dédié aux animaux ! Nous sommes ravis de vous accueillir dans l’univers fascinant de la faune, où nous explorons et partageons des articles informatifs et divertissants sur toutes sortes d’animaux, des créatures domestiques aux espèces sauvages les plus exotiques Collier Anti Aboiement
    Chaque semaine, nous vous proposons de nouveaux articles qui abordent une variété de sujets, de la biologie et du comportement animal à la conservation et à la cohabitation harmonieuse avec nos amis à quatre pattes.

  27. Deventer SEO specialisten: uw top SEO bureau in Overijssel en Achterhoek! Bereik meer potentiële klanten met onze professionele SEO-diensten. Wij begrijpen de complexe algoritmes van zoekmachines en zijn experts op het gebied van SEO. Onze allesomvattende aanpak omvat on-page en off-page optimalisatie, zodat uw website zo zoekmachinevriendelijk mogelijk is. Met zoekwoordenonderzoek, contentoptimalisatie, linkbuilding en meer zorgen wij ervoor dat uw bedrijf snel en betrouwbaar wordt gevonden in Google. Wij gebruiken white-hat SEO-technieken die voldoen aan de richtlijnen van zoekmachines en garanderen resultaten. In tegenstelling tot andere bedrijven bieden wij eerlijke en ethische SEO-services aan. Met jarenlange ervaring en een team van ervaren professionals zijn wij het SEO bureau waar u naar op zoek bent. Wij hebben honderden klanten geholpen om hun zichtbaarheid in zoekmachines te verbeteren en verkeer naar hun websites te genereren. Neem vandaag nog contact met ons op voor meer informatie over onze diensten en hoe wij uw bedrijf vindbaar kunnen maken in Google voor uw doelgroep in de Achterhoek regio. dinner lunch Seminyak

  28. After carefully perusing the blog, we find it incredibly captivating. We wish to express our sincere appreciation to the writer for their invaluable contribution, representing Emergency Dentist Henderson. An emergency dentist in Henderson is dedicated to delivering immediate dental care for unforeseen oral health issues. When you embark on a quest for an “emergency dentist near me,” you’re seeking a local dental expert emergency dentist near me capable of addressing urgent dental dilemmas, including severe toothaches, fractured teeth, or unexpected injuries. These dentists specialize in providing swift relief and treatment to mitigate discomfort and safeguard your dental well-being during critical situations.

  29. After closely analyzing the blog, we find it truly captivating. We’d like to express our heartfelt appreciation to the author for their invaluable contribution on behalf of Emergency Room Near Me. If you’re currently seeking a nearby emergency room, identify the nearest healthcare facility equipped to Emergency Room Near Me address urgent medical situations, providing immediate care and assistance for a broad spectrum of medical emergencies. Being aware of the location of the nearest emergency room is crucial for swift access during critical moments.

  30. Regular physical activity is a cornerstone of a Health Living Hub. Engaging in regular exercise helps you maintain a healthy weight, improve cardiovascular health, and boost your mood through the release of endorphins. From brisk walks and yoga sessions to strength training and dance classes, find activities that bring you joy and keep you motivated.

  31. Expand your horizons with our revolutionary learning resources. “Hold’em Revolution” offers a range of resources, including advanced strategy guides, immersive video tutorials, and insights from experts in the field. Whether you’re a seasoned player seeking to adapt to the revolution or a newcomer eager to learn, our learning resources empower you to master the innovative aspects of poker gameplay.


  32. Thanks for taking the time to discuss this, I feel strongly that love and read more on this topic. If possible, such as gain knowledge, would you mind updating your blog with additional information? It is very useful for me. pet nutrition

  33. Are you ready to step onto the stage of poker excellence, engage in fierce battles, and learn from the best in the field? Join “Poker Pros Unite” today and become part of a community that cherishes skill development, strategic brilliance, and the pursuit of mastery. Whether you’re seeking competitive thrills, learning opportunities, or both, our platform offers a comprehensive experience tailored to your preferences. Don’t miss out on the chance to unite with poker pros from around the world—join “Poker Pros Unite” and let the pursuit of excellence redefine your poker journey.


Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *