Supplementary Methods

  1. Accessible genome measurement
  2. SNP discovery
  3. Genotype concordance between Sequencing and Omni 2.5 M genotyping
  4. Transition and transversion SNPs
  5. Functional annotation of SNPs
  6. Indels discovery and functional annotation
  7. Structural variation (deletion) discovery
  8. Haplotype phasing of the SSIP genotype data
  9. Mitochondria haplogroup Assignment
  10. Chromosome Y haplogroup Assignment


1.1 Accessible genome measurement

We measured accessible genome by taking proportion of pass quality control properly paired reads that were successfully mapped to the human reference genome NCBI build 37. Sequence reads were filtered with SAMTOOLS 0.1.18 1 to remove PCR duplicates, and subsequently the BEDTools version 1.18.0 2 was used to calculate the accessible genome for each sample with the following command line:

% samtools view -f 0x2 -b [sample].bam | samtools view -b -F 0x200 – | samtools view -b -F 0x400 – | genomeCoverageBed -d -ibam stdin | gzip -cv

In-house scripts were then used for calculating statistical summaries including quartile information on coverage, total coverage of mapped bases and total number of bases with at least 1 read coverage for mapped bases in each sample from the output of genomeCoverageBed. These metrics were summarized to calculate the average percentage of accessible genome across all SSIP samples.



1.2 SNP discovery

We used two approaches to perform the SNP discovery process: (i) single-sample SNP calling using CASAVA; (ii) multi-sample SNP calling using The Genome Analysis Toolkit (GATK version 2.1.8) 3,4 .

Variant calling in CASAVA uses callSmallVariants module that involve two stages, (i) Allele calling according to the sequence base calls, alignment scores (at least 6) and quality scores. Bases calles and their associated quality values were sent to Bayesian allele caller which output one or two allele calls and scores for each position in the genome. (ii) SNPs calling base on the basis of the allele calls and the read depth.

Allele calling considers the paired-end reads that satisfy all of the following criteria:

  • Properly aligned and mapped to the reference genome;
  • Pass the quality control filtering;
  • Alignment score of at least 6;
  • Read-pairs must map with the expected size and orientation.


CASAVA excludes reads that fail primary analysis quality checks which can be any of the following reads:

  • PCR duplicates;
  • optical duplicates;
  • reads with a paired-end mapping quality score of less than 90


Q(snp) and Q(max_gt) are two quality scores in the probabilistic model adopted by CASAVA in calculating the likelihood of the possible genotypes for every site in the genome. Q(snp) expresses the probability that the site will contain a variant allele while Q(max_gt) shows the probability of the most likely genotype at this site.

We retained candidate SNPs with Q(snp)>=20 and base depth smaller than 3 times the mean sequencing depth of the chromosome (to removes SNPs at regions close to centromeres with high copy numbers). Heterozygous SNPs on non-autosomal haploid chromosomes are also removed.

We used GATK’s UnifiedGenotyper for the multi-sample calling with the following workflow:

Step 1: Preprocessing
Customized script was used to replace bam file header and split the bam file by lane.

Step 2: Preparation of indel realigned bam file (for each sample)
% java -Xmx2g -jar $GATK -T RealignerTargetCreator -I $SAMPLE.bam -R $REF -o $SAMPLE.intervals

% java -Xmx2g -jar $GATK -T IndelRealigner -I $SAMPLE.bam -R $REF -targetIntervals $SAMPLE.intervals -o SAMPLE.realign.bam

% SAMTOOLS index $SAMPLE.realign.bam

Step 3: Duplication Marking
% java -Xmx2g -jar $PICARD/MarkDuplicates.jar VALIDATION_STRINGENCY=SILENT
INPUT=SAMPLE.realign.bam OUTPUT=SAMPLE.realign.dedup.

% SAMTOOLS index SAMPLE.realign.dedup.bam

Step 4: Bases recalibration
% java -Xmx2g -jar $GATK -T BaseRecalibrator -I SAMPLE.realign.dedup.bam -R
REF -knownSites $DBSNP -o $SAMPLE.grp

% java -Xmx2g -jar $GATK -T PrintReads -I SAMPLE.realign.dedup.bam -R REF –
BQSR SAMPLE.grp -o SAMPLE.realign.dedup.recal.bam

% samtools index SAMPLE.realign.dedup.recal.bam

Step 5: Variant calling for SNPs

% java -Xmx4g -jar $GATK -nt 2 -T UnifiedGenotyper INPUT -R $REF -o –genotype_likelihoods_model SNP

Step 6: SNPs recalibration
% java -Xmx4g -jar $GATK -T VariantRecalibrator -R REF \
-input \
-resource:omni,known=false,training=true,truth=false,prior=11.0 OMNI \
-resource:dbsnp,known=true,training=false,truth=false,prior=6.0 DBSNP \
-an QD \
-an HaplotypeScore \
-an MQRankSum \
-an ReadPosRankSum \
-an FS \
-an MQ \
-an InbreedingCoeff \
-an DP \
-mode SNP \
-recalFile \
-tranchesFile \
% java -Xmx2g -jar $GATK -T ApplyRecalibration -R REF \
-input \
–ts_filter_level 99.0 \
-tranchesFile \
-recalFile \
-mode SNP \
-o $

To reduce the likelihood of false positives in the SNP calling, the final set of SNPs that are reported in the main text only included those that have been discovered by both CASAVA and GATK.



1.3 Genotype concordance between Sequencing and Omni 2.5 M genotyping

Each of the 38 SSIP samples has also been genotyped on the Illumina Human Omni 2.5 M genotyping array. Genotype data from this array were assessed for the following criteria:

  • High rates of missingness (> 5%)
  • Excess heterozygosity, which can be indicative of sample contamination
  • Excess identity-by-state, which suggests related or duplicated samples
  • Discordant ethnic membership from the reported ethnicity
  • Gender discrepancy.

We removed SNP if any one of the following conditions was met:

  • Invalid chromosomal positions or strand;
  • Duplicated chromosomal positions
  • High rates of missingness (call rate < 95%)
  • Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium p-value < 10-4.

The SNPs on the Illumina Omni 2.5 M that passed the QC checks were used as gold standard to assess the accuracy of the genotype calls made by CASAVA and GATK on the sequence data.



1.4 Transition and transversion SNPs

A transition SNP refers to a variant that changes a purine nucleotide to another purine (A <-> G), or a pyrimidine nucleotide to another pyrimidine (C <-> T). A transversion SNP is a point mutation that changes a purine to a pyrimidine, or vice versa (A <-> C, A <-> T, C <-> G, G <-> T). The ratio of the number of transition SNPs to the number of transversion SNPs across whole genome bi-allelic SNPs is denoted as transition and transversion ratio (Ti/Tv).



1.5 Functional annotation of SNPs

Functional annotation of bi-allelic SNPs is performed using SNPEff 5. Input file preparation and annotation results were summarized using customized computing scripts. The annotation results were binned into a list of categories and functional impacts as described in SNPEff website (



1.6 Indels discovery and functional annotation

Similar with SNPs discovery, two approaches were used for indels calling. Workflow for indels calling is similar to SNPs calling (step 1 to 4) and follow by the procedures below:-

Step 5: Variant Calling for INDELs
% java -Xmx4g -jar $GATK -nt 4 -T UnifiedGeno typer $INPUT \
-R $REF \
-o $ \
–genotype_likelihoods_model INDEL

Step 6: INDELs recalibration

% java -Xmx4g -jar $GATK -T VariantRecalibrat or -R $REF \
-input $ \
–maxGaussians 4 \
-std 10.0 \
-percentBad 0.12 \
-resource:mills,known=true,training=true,truth=true,prior=12.0 $ MILLS \
-an QD \
-an FS \
-an HaplotypeScore \
-an ReadPosRankSum \
-an InbreedingCoeff \
-mode INDEL \
-recalFile $ \
-tranchesFile $ \
-rscriptFile $

% java -Xmx4g -jar $GATK -T ApplyRecalibration -R $REF \
-input $ \
–ts_filter_level 95.0 \
-tranchesFile $ \
-recalFile $ \
-mode INDEL \
-o $

Intersection of indels of size within 50 bp discovered in CASAVA and GATK was the released indels set in SSIP. SNPEff was then used to annotate this consensus indels set.



1.7 Structural Variation discovery (deletion)

Four methods were used for the detection of large deletions in each sample: (i) BreakDancer v1.1._2011_02_21; (ii) VariationHunter Release_v0.3; (iii) Pindel version 0.2.2 and (iv) Delly v0.0.5.

The final set of deletions that are reported in the main text are union sets discovered by all four methods, and are between 50 bp and 10 Mbp in size. To evaluate the intersection of the deletions by

Step 1: Pre-processing raw bam files
% samtools view [sample].q35.bam | awk .f sam2divet.awk > [sample].q35.vh.divet

Step 2: Structural deletion calling
% echo [$min-200] [$max+200] 0 [sample].q35.vh.divet 2 | ./VariationHunter_SC > log &

Step 3: filtration
%./ [sample].q35.vh.divet.SV.Deletion >


1.7.3 Pindel deletion discovery

Pindel [9] is based on split-read analysis, it uses pattern growth approach in detecting structural variation from paired-end reads. The input file for Pindel was generated using the provided sam2pindel tool, using the following command line:

% samtools view [sample].bam | sam2pindel – [sample].pindel.txt [tag] [mean insert size] 0

The Pindel calling was done by:
% pindel. .f reference .p *pindel.txt .c ALL .o *.pindel.output

Filtration of Pindel called deletion was based on minimum of 10 supporting reads
% more [sample].pindel.output_D | awk ‘$2==”D” && $11-$10>10
{printf(“%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t%s\t1\n”,$8,$10,$11,$11-$10,v1)}’ v1=$file > $file.pindel.union


1.7.4 Delly deletion discovery

Delly adopts integrated approach of paired-end and split read analysis in discovering structural variation 10. It calls deletion by using bam file of each sample with the assumption that each bam was separated by library or lane on the sequencer.
./delly .p .g ref.fa [sample].bam

Raw output of Delly was filtered according to sequence coverage, repetitiveness and insert size distribution. Only deletion with supporting reads of mapping quality at least 20 and within length of 50bp to 10Mbp were retained. Filtering was performed using:
% grep ‘>Deletion*’ [sample].out | awk ‘$6>=20 && $4>50 && $4<10000000 {printf(“%s:%s-%s numsnp=3 length=%s state2,cn=1 Delly_raw startsnp=rs123 endsnp=rs321 conf=%s\n”,$1,$2,$3,$4,$5)}[11]’



1.8 Haplotype phasing of genotype data

The set of consensus bi-allelic SNPs detected by both CASAVA and GATK was considered for phasing, where we used the genotype calls made by CASAVA. Phasing was performed using BEAGLE 3.3.2 ( with the following command line:

% java .Xmx 10000m .jar beagle.jar unphased=chr*.bgl missing=0 out=chr*

In house customized script was used to convert the phased output to variants file VCF format.



1.9 Mitochondria haplogroup assignment

Haplogroup assignment of mitochondria was performed using customized script and online tool haplogrep 11,12, the first step involved generation of consensus FASTA file of complete mitochondrion sequence by SAMTOOLS.s mpileup and GATK.s FastaAlternateReferenceMaker. The generated FASTA file was converted to .hsd file as an input data to haplogrep that was ran with default settings. Procedures involved in assigning mitochondria haplogroup of each individual are as follow:

Step 1: Generation of VCF from BAM file
% samtools mpileup .E .q30 .Q30 .C50 .r MT:1-16569 .uf chrM.bam | bcftools view .cg – > output.vcf

Step 2: Assignment of .N. to heterozygous calls by using LINUX command line

Step 3: Generation of FASTA file
% java .jar GenomeAnalysisTK.jar .T FastaAlternateReferenceMaker .R -o output.fasta .variant output.vcf

Step 4: Creation of input file base on format required for haplogrep by using in-house Python script
% python output.fasta

Step 5: Online submission of query to haplogrep at



1.10 Chromosome Y haplogroup assignments

To assign haplogroup for chromosome Y of male samples in SSIP, in-house script was prepared to generate necessary input file to haplogroup assignment software YFitter v0.2 base on 2008 Y tree 13.

VCF file was created to include homozygous reference positions and the file was converted to qcall format using customized Phyton script. qcall file serves as input to YFitter tool for haplogroup assignment. Briefly, Yfitter with default parameters scans through a list of chromosome Y positions to assign haplogroup, the command used:

% ./Yfitter .m karafet_tree_b37.xml file.qcall


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Bulk data

  • Variant Calls: Variant call files for SNPs, short InDels and Structural Variants are available in vcf 4.1 format
  • Phasing data: Phasing data generated using the BEAGLE software

[BAM files of all 36 samples (100Gb each; 3.6Tb in total) are available upon request.]