Journal Publications

2024

  1. A. Kumar, D. J. X. Lin, D. Das, L. Huang, S. L. K. Yap, H. R. Tan, H. K. Tan, R. J. J. Lim, Y. T. Toh, S. Chen, S. T. Lim, X. Fong, and P. Ho, “Multistate compound magnetic tunnel junction synapses for digital recognition,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces vol. XX, no. XX, pp. XX, Feb. 2024, doi:10.1021/acsami.3c17195 [PDF]
  2. A. H. Lone, X. Zou, D. Das, X. Fong, G. Setti, and H. Fariborzi, “Anomalous and Topological Hall Resistivity in Ta/CoFeB/MgO Magnetic Systems for Neuromorphic Computing Applications,” accepted for publication in npj Spintronics, doi:10.48550/arXiv.2304.07742 [PDF] (preprint)

2023

  1. Y. Wang, and X. Fong, “Benchmarking DNN Mapping Methods for the In-memory Computing Accelerators,” Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1040-1051, December 2023, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2023.3328864 [PDF]
  2. B. Chen, M. Zeng, K. H. Khoo, D. Das, X. Fong, S. Fukami, S. Li, W. Zhao, S. S. P. Parkin, S. N. Piramanayagam, and S. T. Lim, “Spintronic Devices for High-density Memory and Neuromorphic Computing – A Review,” Materials Today vol. 70, pp. 193-217, November 2023, doi:10.1016/j.mattod.2023.10.004 [PDF]
  3. Y. Cao, H. Liang, H.-L. Lin, L. Qi, P. Yang, X. Fong, E. Dogheche, A. Bettiol, and A. Danner, “Engineering Refractive Index Contrast in Thin Film Barium Titanate-on-Insulator,” Nano Letters vol. 23, no. 16, pp. 7267-7272, August 2023, doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c00933 [PDF]
  4. Y.-C. Chien, H. Xiang, J. Wang, Y. Shi, X. Fong, and K.-W. Ang, “Attack Resilient True Random Number Generators Using Ferroelectric-Enhanced Stochasticity in 2D Transistor,” Small 2023, art. 23002842, May 2023, doi:10.1002/smll.202302842 [PDF]
  5. D. Das, Y. Cen, J. Wang, and X. Fong, “Bilayer-Skyrmion based design of Neuron and Synapse for Spiking Neural Network,” Physical Review Applied vol. 19, iss. 2, art. 024063, 23 February 2023, doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.19.024063 [PDF]

2022

  1. D. Das, and X. Fong, “Self-reset schemes for Magnetic domain wall-based neuron,” IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 166-172, December 2022, doi:10.1109/JXCDC.2022.3227774 [PDF]
  2. D. R. B. Ly, and X. Fong, “Memtransistor-based ternary content-addressable memories: Design and Evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 69, iss. 12, pp. 6745-6750, December 2022 doi:10.1109/TED.2022.3217996 [PDF]
  3. Q. Yang, R. Mishra, Y. Cen, G. Shi, R. Sharma, X. Fong, and H. Yang, “Spintronic Integrate-Fire-Reset Neuron with Stochasticity for Neuromorphic Computing,” Nano Letters vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 8437-8444, November 2022, doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02409 [PDF]
  4. Y. Cen, D. Das, and X. Fong, “A tree search algorithm towards solving Ising formulated combinatorial optimization problems,” Scientific Reports 12, 14755, Aug. 2022 doi:10.1038/s41598-022-19102-x [PDF]
  5. P. Zhang, X. Feng, and X. Fong, “Impact of trap profile on the characteristics of 2D MoS2 memtransistors: a simulation study,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 69, iss. 8, pg. 4750-4756, July 2022, doi:10.1109/TED.2022.3186867 [PDF]

2021

  1. D. Das, and X. Fong, “A Fokker-Planck Approach for Modeling the Stochastic Phenomena in Magnetic and Resistive Random Access Memory Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 68, iss. 12, pp. 6124-6131, Dec. 2021, doi:10.1109/TED.2021.3123067 [PDF]
  2. S. Li, M.-E. Pam, Y. Li, L. Chen, Y.-C. Chien, X. Fong, D. Chi, and K.-W. Ang, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional hafnium diselenide based memristor crossbar array for energy-efficient neural network hardware,” Advanced Materials, 2021, art. 2103376, Sep. 2021, doi:10.1002/adma.202103376 [PDF]
  3. X. Feng, S. Li, S. L. Wong, S. Tong, L. Chen, P. Zhang, L. Wang, X. Fong, D. Chi, and K.-W. Ang, “Self-Selective Multi-Terminal Memtransistor Crossbar Array for In-Memory Computing,” ACS Nano vol. 15, iss. 1, pp. 1764-1774, Jan. 2021, doi:10.1021/acsnano.0c09441 [PDF]
  4. S. Li, B. Li, X. Feng, L. Chen, Y. Li, L. Huang, X. Fong, and K.-W. Ang, “Electron-beam-irradiated rhenium disulfide memristors with low variability for neuromorphic computing,” npj 2D Materials and Applications vol. 5, art. 1, Jan. 2021, doi:10.1038/s41699-020-00190-0 [PDF]

2020

  1. P. Zhang, L. Wang, K.-W. Ang, and X. Fong, “Transition from trap-mediated to band-like transport in polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide memtransistors,” Applied Physics Letters vol. 117, iss. 22, art. 223101, Nov. 2020, doi:10.1063/5.0031799 [PDF]
  2. V. P. K. Miriyala, R. K. Vishwanath, and X. Fong, “SIMBA: A Skyrmionic In-Memory Binary Neural Network Accelerator,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics vol. 56, iss. 11, art. 1500212, Nov. 2020, doi:10.1109/TMAG.2020.3024172 [PDF]
  3. J. Deng, V. P. K. Miriyala, Z. Zhu, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Voltage-Controlled Spintronic Stochastic Neuron for Restricted Boltzmann Machine With Weight Sparsity,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1102-1105, July 2020, doi:10.1109/LED.2020.2995874 [PDF]
  4. P. Zhang, S. Samanta, and X. Fong, “Physical Insights Into the Mobility Enhancement in Amorphous InGaZnO Thin-Film Transistor by SiO2 Passivation Layer,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 67, iss. 6, pp. 2352-2358, June 2020, doi:10.1109/TED.2020.2989105 [PDF]
  5. S. Samanta, U. Chand, S. Xu, K. Han, Y. Wu, C. Wang, A. Kumar, H. Velluri, Y. Li, X. Fong, A. V.-Y. Thean, X. Gong, “Low Subthreshold Swing and High Mobility Amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistor with Thin HfO2 Gate Dielectric and Excellent Uniformity,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 41, iss. 6, pp. 856-859, June 2020, doi:10.1109/LED.2020.2985787 [PDF]
  6. Z. Zhu, K. Cai, J. Deng, V. P. K. Miriyala, H. Yang, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Electrical generation and detection of terahertz signal based on spin-wave emission from ferrimagnets,” Physical Review Applied vol. 13, art. 034040, Mar. 2020, doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.034040 [PDF]

2019

  1. S. Samanta, X. Gong, P. Zhang, K. Han, and X. Fong, “Bipolar resistive switching and synaptic characteristic modulation at sub-µA current level using novel Ni/SiOx/W cross-point structure,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 805, pp. 915-923, Oct. 2019, doi:110.1016/j.jallcom.2019.07.050 [PDF]
  2. V. P. K. Miriyala, Z. Zhu, G.-C. Liang, and X. Fong, “Spin-wave mediated interactions for Majority Computation using Skyrmions and Spin-torque Nano-oscillators,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials vol. 486, art. 165271, Sep. 2019, doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2019.165271 [PDF]
  3. Z. Zhu, J. Deng, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Voltage-input spintronic oscillator based on competing effect for extended oscillation regions,” Journal of Applied Physics vol. 125, iss. 18, art. 183902, May 2019, doi:10.1063/1.5092881 [PDF]
  4. V. P. K. Miriyala, X. Fong, G.-C. Liang, “Influence of Size and Shape on the Performance of VCMA-Based MTJs,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 66, iss. 2, pp. 944-949, Feb. 2019, doi:10.1109/TED.2018.2889112 [PDF]

2018

  1. Z. Zhu, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Damping-like spin-orbit-torque-induced magnetization dynamics in ferrimagnets based on Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation,” Journal of Applied Physics vol. 124, iss. 19, art. 193901, Nov. 2018, doi:10.1063/1.5048040 [PDF]
  2. L. Xiang, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, X. Fong, X. Wei, and Y. Hu, “Configurable multifunctional integrated circuits based on carbon nanotube dual-material gate devices,” Nanoscale vol. 10, iss. 46, pp. 21857-21864, Oct. 2018, doi:10.1039/C8NR08259F [PDF]
  3. Z. Zhu, X. Fong, G.-C. Liang, “Theoretical proposal for determining angular momentum compensation in ferrimagnets,” Physical Review B vol. 97, iss. 18, art. 184410, May 2018, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.184410 [PDF]
  4. J. Deng, X. Fong, G.-C. Liang, “Electric-field-induced three-terminal pMTJ switching in the absence of an external magnetic field,” Applied Physics Letters vol. 112, iss. 25, art. 252405, Jun. 2018, doi:10.1063/1.5027759 [PDF]
  5. S. Deb, T. Vatwani, A. Chattopadhyay, A. Basu, and X. Fong, “Domain Wall Motion-based Dual-Threshold Activation Unit for Low-Power Classification of Non-Linearly Separable Functions,” IEEE Transactions Biomedical Circuits and Systems vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1410-1421, Aug. 2018, doi:10.1109/TBCAS.2018.2867038 [PDF]

2017

  1. Y. Seo, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Fast and Disturb-Free Nonvolatile Flip-Flop Using Complementary Polarizer MTJ,” IEEE Transactions Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems vol. 25, iss. 4, pp. 1573-1577, Apr. 2017, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2016.2631981 [PDF]
  2. Z. Pajouhi, X. Fong, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Yield, area, and energy optimization in STT-MRAMs using failure-aware ECC,” ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems vol. 13, iss. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 1437-1442, doi:10.1145/2934685 [PDF]

2016

  1. X. Fong, Y. Kim, R. Venkatesan, S. H. Choday, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Spin-transfer Torque Memories: Devices, Circuits and Systems,” Proceedings of the IEEE vol. 104, iss. 7, pp. 1449-1488, Jul. 2016, doi:10.1109/JPROC.2016.2521712 [PDF]
  2. X. Fong, R. Venkatesan, D. Lee, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Embedding read-only memory in spin-transfer torque MRAM based on-chip caches,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (TVLSI) Systems vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 992-1002, Mar. 2016, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2015.2439733 [PDF]
  3. X. Fong, Y. Kim, K. Yogendra, D. Fan, A. Sengupta, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Spin-transfer torque devices for logic and memory applications: prospects and perspectives,” IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems vol. 35, iss. 1, pp. 1-22, Jan. 2016, doi:10.1109/TCAD.2015.2481793 Invited Paper. [PDF]
  4. A. Jaiswal, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Comprehensive Scaling Analysis of Current Induced Switching in Magnetic Memories Based on In-Plane and Perpendicular Anisotropies,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 6, iss. 2, pp. 120-133, Jun. 2016, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2016.2547698 [PDF]
  5. A. Reza, Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Modeling and Evaluation of Topological Insulator/Ferromagnet Heterostructure Based Memory,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (TED) vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 1359-1367, Mar. 2016, doi:10.1109/TED.2016.2520941 [PDF]
  6. Y. Seo, K.-W. Kwon, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “High Performance and Energy-Efficient On-Chip Cache Using Dual Port (1R/1W) Spin-Orbit Torque MRAM,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 6, iss. 3, pp. 293-304, Sep. 2016, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2016.2547701 [PDF]

2015

  1. Y. Kim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Spin-orbit torque based spin-dice: a true random number generator,” IEEE Magnetics Letters vol. 6, art. 3001004, Dec. 2015, doi:10.1109/LMAG.2015.2496548 [PDF]
  2. K. Kwon, X. Fong, P. Wijesinghe, P. Panda, and K. Roy, “High-Density & Robust STT-MRAM Array through Device/Circuit/Architecture Interactions,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 14, iss. 6, pp. 1024-1034, Nov. 2015, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2015.2456510 [PDF]
  3. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C.-H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Optimizing Emerging Non-Volatile Memories for Dual-Mode Applications: Data Storage and Key Generator,” IEEE Trans. on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (TCAD) vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1176-1187, Jul. 2015, doi:10.1109/TCAD.2015.2427251 [PDF]
  4. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C.-H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Highly Reliable Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM based Physical Unclonable Function With Multi-Response-Bits Per Cell,” IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security (TIFS) vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1630-1642, Aug. 2015, doi:10.1109/TIFS.2015.2421481 [PDF]
  5. Y. Seo, X. Fong, K.-W. Kwon and K. Roy, “Spin-Hall Magnetic Random-Access Memory with Dual Read/Write Ports for On-chip Caches,” IEEE Magnetics Letters vol. 6, art. 3000204, Apr. 2015, doi:10.1109/LMAG.2015.2422260 [PDF]
  6. Y. Seo, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Domain wall coupling based STT-MRAM for on-chip cache applications,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (TED) vol. 62, iss. 2, pp. 554-560, Feb. 2015, doi:10.1109/TED.2014.2377751 [PDF]
  7. Y. Kim, X. Fong, K.-W. Kwon, M.-C. Chen, and K. Roy, “Multi-level spin-orbit torque MRAMs,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (TED) vol. 62, iss. 2, pp. 561-568, Jan. 2015, doi:10.1109/TED.2014.2377721 [PDF]
  8. A. Sengupta, Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (APL), vol. 106, iss. 9, 093704, Mar. 2015, doi:10.1063/1.4914111 [PDF]
  9. K. Roy, D. Fan, X. Fong,Y. Kim, M. Sharad, S. Paul, S. Chatterjee, S. Bhunia, and S. Mukhopadhyay, “Exploring spin transfer torque devices for unconventional computing,” IEEE J. on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems (JETCAS) vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5-16, Mar. 2015, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2015.2405171. Invited Paper [PDF]

2014

  1. X. Fong, R. Venkatesan, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Non-volatile complementary polarizer spin-transfer torque (CPSTT) on-chip caches: a device/circuit/systems perspective,” IEEE Trans. Magnetics (TMAG) vol. 50, iss. 10, art. 3400611, Oct. 2014, doi:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2326858 [PDF]
  2. X. Fong, Y. Kim, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Failure mitigation techniques for 1T-1MTJ spin-transfer torque MRAM bit-cells,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (TVLSI) Systems vol. 22, iss. 2, pp. 384-395, Feb. 2014, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2013.2239671 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Units of “Nominal J_{C}^{}” in Table I should be \text{``MA/cm}^{2}_{}\text{''} instead of \text{``mA/cm}^{2}_{}\text{''}
  3. Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, T. Ostler, R. Chantrell, and K. Roy, “Laser induced magnetization reversal for detection in optical interconnects,” IEEE Electron Device Letters (EDL) vol. 35, iss. 12, pp. 1317-1319, Oct. 2014, doi:10.1109/LED.2014.2364232. [PDF]
  4. K.-W. Kwon, S. H. Choday, Y. Kim, X. Fong, S. P. Park, and K. Roy, “SHE-NVFF: spin Hall effect based nonvolatile flip flop for power gating architecture,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 35, iss. 4, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2014, doi:10.1109/LED.2014.2304683 [PDF]

2013

  1. X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Complementary polarizers STT-MRAM (CPSTT) for on-chip caches,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 34, iss. 2, pp. 232-234, Feb. 2013, doi:10.1109/LED.2012.2234079 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Page 232, Title: “Complimentary” should be replaced with “Complementary”
      2. Page 232, Column 1, Last sentence of Section I: “complimentary polarizers” should be replaced with “complementary polarizers”
      3. Page 233, title in running header: “COMPLIMENTARY” should be replaced with “COMPLEMENTARY”
  2. D. Lee, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “R-MRAM: A ROM-Embedded STT MRAM Cache,” IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. vol. 34, iss. 10, pp. 1256-1258, Oct. 2013, doi:10.1109/LED.2013.2279137 [PDF]
  3. N. N. Mojumder, X. Fong, C. Augustine, S. K. Gupta, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Dual pillar spin-transfer torque MRAMs for low power applications,” ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC) vol. 9, iss. 2, art. 14, May 2013, doi:10.1145/2463585.2463590 [PDF]

2012

  1. X. Fong, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Bit-cell level optimization for non-volatile memories using magnetic tunnel junctions and spin-transfer torque switching,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 172-181, Jan. 2012, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2011.2169456 [PDF]
  2. C. Augustine, N. Mojumder, X. Fong, H. Choday, S. Park, and K. Roy, “Spin-Transfer Torque MRAMs for Low Power Memories: Perspective and Prospective,” IEEE J. Sensors vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 756-766, Apr. 2012, doi:10.1109/JSEN.2011.2124453. Invited Paper [PDF]

2011

  1. C. Augustine, X. Fong, B. Behin-Aein, and K. Roy, “Ultra-low power nano-magnet based computing: a system-level perspective,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 10, 4, pp. 778-788, Jul. 2011, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2010.2079941 [PDF]
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