Journal Publications

2024

  1. J. Si, S. Yang, Y. Cen, J. Chen, Y. Huang, Z. Yao, D.-J. Kim, K. Cai, J. Yoo, X. Fong, and H. Yang, “Energy-efficient superparamagnetic Ising machine and its application to traveling salesman problems,” Nature Communications vol. 15, art. 3457, Apr. 2024, doi:10.1038/s41467-024-47818-z [PDF]
  2. A. Kumar, D. J. X. Lin, D. Das, L. Huang, S. L. K. Yap, H. R. Tan, H. K. Tan, R. J. J. Lim, Y. T. Toh, S. Chen, S. T. Lim, X. Fong, and P. Ho, “Multistate compound magnetic tunnel junction synapses for digital recognition,” ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 10335-10343, Feb. 2024, doi:10.1021/acsami.3c17195 [PDF]
  3. A. H. Lone, X. Zou, D. Das, X. Fong, G. Setti, and H. Fariborzi, “Anomalous hall and skyrmion topological Hall resistivity in magnetic heterostructures for the neuromorphic computing applications,” npj Spintronics vol. 2, art. 3, Mar. 2024, doi:10.1038/s44306-023-00006-z [PDF]

2023

  1. Y. Wang, and X. Fong, “Benchmarking DNN Mapping Methods for the In-memory Computing Accelerators,” Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 1040-1051, Dec. 2023, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2023.3328864 [PDF]
  2. D. Das, Y. Cen, J. Wang, and X. Fong, “Bilayer-Skyrmion based design of Neuron and Synapse for Spiking Neural Network,” Physical Review Applied vol. 19, iss. 2, art. 024063, 23 Feb. 2023, doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.19.024063 [PDF]
  3. Y.-C. Chien, H. Xiang, J. Wang, Y. Shi, X. Fong, and K.-W. Ang, “Attack Resilient True Random Number Generators Using Ferroelectric-Enhanced Stochasticity in 2D Transistor,” Small 2023, 19, art. 23002842, May 2023, doi:10.1002/smll.202302842 [PDF]
  4. Y. Cao, H. Liang, H.-L. Lin, L. Qi, P. Yang, X. Fong, E. Dogheche, A. Bettiol, and A. Danner, “Engineering Refractive Index Contrast in Thin Film Barium Titanate-on-Insulator,” Nano Letters vol. 23, no. 16, pp. 7267-7272, Aug. 2023, doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.3c00933 [PDF]
  5. B. Chen, M. Zeng, K. H. Khoo, D. Das, X. Fong, S. Fukami, S. Li, W. Zhao, S. S. P. Parkin, S. N. Piramanayagam, and S. T. Lim, “Spintronic Devices for High-density Memory and Neuromorphic Computing – A Review,” Materials Today vol. 70, pp. 193-217, Nov. 2023, doi:10.1016/j.mattod.2023.10.004 [PDF]

2022

  1. D. Das, and X. Fong, “Self-reset schemes for Magnetic domain wall-based neuron,” IEEE Journal on Exploratory Solid-State Computational Devices and Circuits vol. 8, no. 2, pp. 166-172, Dec. 2022, doi:10.1109/JXCDC.2022.3227774 [PDF]
  2. D. R. B. Ly, and X. Fong, “Memtransistor-based ternary content-addressable memories: Design and Evaluation,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 69, iss. 12, pp. 6745-6750, Dec. 2022 doi:10.1109/TED.2022.3217996 [PDF]
  3. Y. Cen, D. Das, and X. Fong, “A tree search algorithm towards solving Ising formulated combinatorial optimization problems,” Scientific Reports 12, 14755, Aug. 2022 doi:10.1038/s41598-022-19102-x [PDF]
  4. P. Zhang, X. Feng, and X. Fong, “Impact of trap profile on the characteristics of 2D MoS2 memtransistors: a simulation study,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 69, iss. 8, pg. 4750-4756, Jul. 2022, doi:10.1109/TED.2022.3186867 [PDF]
  5. Q. Yang, R. Mishra, Y. Cen, G. Shi, R. Sharma, X. Fong, and H. Yang, “Spintronic Integrate-Fire-Reset Neuron with Stochasticity for Neuromorphic Computing,” Nano Letters vol. 22, no. 21, pp. 8437-8444, Nov. 2022, doi:10.1021/acs.nanolett.2c02409 [PDF]

2021

  1. D. Das, and X. Fong, “A Fokker-Planck Approach for Modeling the Stochastic Phenomena in Magnetic and Resistive Random Access Memory Devices,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 68, iss. 12, pp. 6124-6131, Dec. 2021, doi:10.1109/TED.2021.3123067 [PDF]
  2. S. Li, B. Li, X. Feng, L. Chen, Y. Li, L. Huang, X. Fong, and K.-W. Ang, “Electron-beam-irradiated rhenium disulfide memristors with low variability for neuromorphic computing,” npj 2D Materials and Applications vol. 5, art. 1, Jan. 2021, doi:10.1038/s41699-020-00190-0 [PDF]
  3. S. Li, M.-E. Pam, Y. Li, L. Chen, Y.-C. Chien, X. Fong, D. Chi, and K.-W. Ang, “Wafer-scale two-dimensional hafnium diselenide based memristor crossbar array for energy-efficient neural network hardware,” Advanced Materials, 2021, art. 2103376, Sep. 2021, doi:10.1002/adma.202103376 [PDF]
  4. X. Feng, S. Li, S. L. Wong, S. Tong, L. Chen, P. Zhang, L. Wang, X. Fong, D. Chi, and K.-W. Ang, “Self-Selective Multi-Terminal Memtransistor Crossbar Array for In-Memory Computing,” ACS Nano vol. 15, iss. 1, pp. 1764-1774, Jan. 2021, doi:10.1021/acsnano.0c09441 [PDF]

2020

  1. P. Zhang, L. Wang, K.-W. Ang, and X. Fong, “Transition from trap-mediated to band-like transport in polycrystalline monolayer molybdenum disulfide memtransistors,” Applied Physics Letters vol. 117, iss. 22, art. 223101, Nov. 2020, doi:10.1063/5.0031799 [PDF]
  2. V. P. K. Miriyala, R. K. Vishwanath, and X. Fong, “SIMBA: A Skyrmionic In-Memory Binary Neural Network Accelerator,” IEEE Transactions on Magnetics vol. 56, iss. 11, art. 1500212, Nov. 2020, doi:10.1109/TMAG.2020.3024172 [PDF]
  3. P. Zhang, S. Samanta, and X. Fong, “Physical Insights Into the Mobility Enhancement in Amorphous InGaZnO Thin-Film Transistor by SiO2 Passivation Layer,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 67, iss. 6, pp. 2352-2358, Jun. 2020, doi:10.1109/TED.2020.2989105 [PDF]
  4. J. Deng, V. P. K. Miriyala, Z. Zhu, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Voltage-Controlled Spintronic Stochastic Neuron for Restricted Boltzmann Machine With Weight Sparsity,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 1102-1105, Jul. 2020, doi:10.1109/LED.2020.2995874 [PDF]
  5. Z. Zhu, K. Cai, J. Deng, V. P. K. Miriyala, H. Yang, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Electrical generation and detection of terahertz signal based on spin-wave emission from ferrimagnets,” Physical Review Applied vol. 13, art. 034040, Mar. 2020, doi:10.1103/PhysRevApplied.13.034040 [PDF]
  6. S. Samanta, U. Chand, S. Xu, K. Han, Y. Wu, C. Wang, A. Kumar, H. Velluri, Y. Li, X. Fong, A. V.-Y. Thean, X. Gong, “Low Subthreshold Swing and High Mobility Amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistor with Thin HfO2 Gate Dielectric and Excellent Uniformity,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 41, iss. 6, pp. 856-859, Jun. 2020, doi:10.1109/LED.2020.2985787 [PDF]

2019

  1. S. Samanta, X. Gong, P. Zhang, K. Han, and X. Fong, “Bipolar resistive switching and synaptic characteristic modulation at sub-µA current level using novel Ni/SiOx/W cross-point structure,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 805, pp. 915-923, Oct. 2019, doi:10.1016/j.jallcom.2019.07.050 [PDF]
  2. V. P. K. Miriyala, Z. Zhu, G.-C. Liang, and X. Fong, “Spin-wave mediated interactions for Majority Computation using Skyrmions and Spin-torque Nano-oscillators,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials vol. 486, art. 165271, Sep. 2019, doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2019.165271 [PDF]
  3. Z. Zhu, J. Deng, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Voltage-input spintronic oscillator based on competing effect for extended oscillation regions,” Journal of Applied Physics vol. 125, iss. 18, art. 183902, May 2019, doi:10.1063/1.5092881 [PDF]
  4. V. P. K. Miriyala, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Influence of Size and Shape on the Performance of VCMA-Based MTJs,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 66, iss. 2, pp. 944-949, Feb. 2019, doi:10.1109/TED.2018.2889112 [PDF]

2018

  1. S. Deb, T. Vatwani, A. Chattopadhyay, A. Basu, and X. Fong, “Domain Wall Motion-based Dual-Threshold Activation Unit for Low-Power Classification of Non-Linearly Separable Functions,” IEEE Transactions Biomedical Circuits and Systems vol. 12, iss. 6, pp. 1410-1421, Aug. 2018, doi:10.1109/TBCAS.2018.2867038 [PDF]
  2. Z. Zhu, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Damping-like spin-orbit-torque-induced magnetization dynamics in ferrimagnets based on Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation,” Journal of Applied Physics vol. 124, iss. 19, art. 193901, Nov. 2018, doi:10.1063/1.5048040 [PDF]
  3. J. Deng, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Electric-field-induced three-terminal pMTJ switching in the absence of an external magnetic field,” Applied Physics Letters vol. 112, iss. 25, art. 252405, Jun. 2018, doi:10.1063/1.5027759 [PDF]
  4. Z. Zhu, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Theoretical proposal for determining angular momentum compensation in ferrimagnets,” Physical Review B vol. 97, iss. 18, art. 184410, May 2018, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.184410 [PDF]
  5. L. Xiang, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, X. Fong, X. Wei, and Y. Hu, “Configurable multifunctional integrated circuits based on carbon nanotube dual-material gate devices,” Nanoscale vol. 10, iss. 46, pp. 21857-21864, Oct. 2018, doi:10.1039/C8NR08259F [PDF]

2017

  1. Y. Seo, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Fast and Disturb-Free Nonvolatile Flip-Flop Using Complementary Polarizer MTJ,” IEEE Transactions Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems vol. 25, iss. 4, pp. 1573-1577, Apr. 2017, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2016.2631981 [PDF]
  2. Z. Pajouhi, X. Fong, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Yield, area, and energy optimization in STT-MRAMs using failure-aware ECC,” ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems vol. 13, iss. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 1437-1442, doi:10.1145/2934685 [PDF]

2016

  1. X. Fong, Y. Kim, R. Venkatesan, S. H. Choday, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Spin-transfer Torque Memories: Devices, Circuits and Systems,” Proceedings of the IEEE vol. 104, iss. 7, pp. 1449-1488, Jul. 2016, doi:10.1109/JPROC.2016.2521712 [PDF]
  2. X. Fong, R. Venkatesan, D. Lee, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Embedding read-only memory in spin-transfer torque MRAM based on-chip caches,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (TVLSI) Systems vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 992-1002, Mar. 2016, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2015.2439733 [PDF]
  3. X. Fong, Y. Kim, K. Yogendra, D. Fan, A. Sengupta, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Spin-transfer torque devices for logic and memory applications: prospects and perspectives,” IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems vol. 35, iss. 1, pp. 1-22, Jan. 2016, doi:10.1109/TCAD.2015.2481793 Invited Paper. [PDF]
  4. A. Jaiswal, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Comprehensive Scaling Analysis of Current Induced Switching in Magnetic Memories Based on In-Plane and Perpendicular Anisotropies,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 6, iss. 2, pp. 120-133, Jun. 2016, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2016.2547698 [PDF]
  5. A. Reza, Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Modeling and Evaluation of Topological Insulator/Ferromagnet Heterostructure Based Memory,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (TED) vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 1359-1367, Mar. 2016, doi:10.1109/TED.2016.2520941 [PDF]
  6. Y. Seo, K.-W. Kwon, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “High Performance and Energy-Efficient On-Chip Cache Using Dual Port (1R/1W) Spin-Orbit Torque MRAM,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 6, iss. 3, pp. 293-304, Sep. 2016, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2016.2547701 [PDF]

2015

  1. Y. Kim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Spin-orbit torque based spin-dice: a true random number generator,” IEEE Magnetics Letters vol. 6, art. 3001004, Dec. 2015, doi:10.1109/LMAG.2015.2496548 [PDF]
  2. K. Kwon, X. Fong, P. Wijesinghe, P. Panda, and K. Roy, “High-Density & Robust STT-MRAM Array through Device/Circuit/Architecture Interactions,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 14, iss. 6, pp. 1024-1034, Nov. 2015, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2015.2456510 [PDF]
  3. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C.-H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Optimizing Emerging Non-Volatile Memories for Dual-Mode Applications: Data Storage and Key Generator,” IEEE Trans. on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (TCAD) vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1176-1187, Jul. 2015, doi:10.1109/TCAD.2015.2427251 [PDF]
  4. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C.-H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Highly Reliable Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM based Physical Unclonable Function With Multi-Response-Bits Per Cell,” IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security (TIFS) vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1630-1642, Aug. 2015, doi:10.1109/TIFS.2015.2421481 [PDF]
  5. Y. Seo, X. Fong, K.-W. Kwon and K. Roy, “Spin-Hall Magnetic Random-Access Memory with Dual Read/Write Ports for On-chip Caches,” IEEE Magnetics Letters vol. 6, art. 3000204, Apr. 2015, doi:10.1109/LMAG.2015.2422260 [PDF]
  6. Y. Seo, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Domain wall coupling based STT-MRAM for on-chip cache applications,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (TED) vol. 62, iss. 2, pp. 554-560, Feb. 2015, doi:10.1109/TED.2014.2377751 [PDF]
  7. Y. Kim, X. Fong, K.-W. Kwon, M.-C. Chen, and K. Roy, “Multi-level spin-orbit torque MRAMs,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (TED) vol. 62, iss. 2, pp. 561-568, Jan. 2015, doi:10.1109/TED.2014.2377721 [PDF]
  8. A. Sengupta, Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (APL), vol. 106, iss. 9, 093704, Mar. 2015, doi:10.1063/1.4914111 [PDF]
  9. K. Roy, D. Fan, X. Fong,Y. Kim, M. Sharad, S. Paul, S. Chatterjee, S. Bhunia, and S. Mukhopadhyay, “Exploring spin transfer torque devices for unconventional computing,” IEEE J. on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems (JETCAS) vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5-16, Mar. 2015, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2015.2405171. Invited Paper [PDF]

2014

  1. X. Fong, R. Venkatesan, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Non-volatile complementary polarizer spin-transfer torque (CPSTT) on-chip caches: a device/circuit/systems perspective,” IEEE Trans. Magnetics (TMAG) vol. 50, iss. 10, art. 3400611, Oct. 2014, doi:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2326858 [PDF]
  2. X. Fong, Y. Kim, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Failure mitigation techniques for 1T-1MTJ spin-transfer torque MRAM bit-cells,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (TVLSI) Systems vol. 22, iss. 2, pp. 384-395, Feb. 2014, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2013.2239671 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Units of “Nominal J_{C}^{}” in Table I should be \text{``MA/cm}^{2}_{}\text{''} instead of \text{``mA/cm}^{2}_{}\text{''}
  3. Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, T. Ostler, R. Chantrell, and K. Roy, “Laser induced magnetization reversal for detection in optical interconnects,” IEEE Electron Device Letters (EDL) vol. 35, iss. 12, pp. 1317-1319, Oct. 2014, doi:10.1109/LED.2014.2364232 [PDF]
  4. K.-W. Kwon, S. H. Choday, Y. Kim, X. Fong, S. P. Park, and K. Roy, “SHE-NVFF: spin Hall effect based nonvolatile flip flop for power gating architecture,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 35, iss. 4, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2014, doi:10.1109/LED.2014.2304683 [PDF]

2013

  1. X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Complementary polarizers STT-MRAM (CPSTT) for on-chip caches,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 34, iss. 2, pp. 232-234, Feb. 2013, doi:10.1109/LED.2012.2234079 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Page 232, Title: “Complimentary” should be replaced with “Complementary”
      2. Page 232, Column 1, Last sentence of Section I: “complimentary polarizers” should be replaced with “complementary polarizers”
      3. Page 233, title in running header: “COMPLIMENTARY” should be replaced with “COMPLEMENTARY”
  2. D. Lee, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “R-MRAM: A ROM-Embedded STT MRAM Cache,” IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. vol. 34, iss. 10, pp. 1256-1258, Oct. 2013, doi:10.1109/LED.2013.2279137 [PDF]
  3. N. N. Mojumder, X. Fong, C. Augustine, S. K. Gupta, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Dual pillar spin-transfer torque MRAMs for low power applications,” ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC) vol. 9, iss. 2, art. 14, May 2013, doi:10.1145/2463585.2463590 [PDF]

2012

  1. X. Fong, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Bit-cell level optimization for non-volatile memories using magnetic tunnel junctions and spin-transfer torque switching,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 172-181, Jan. 2012, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2011.2169456 [PDF]
  2. C. Augustine, N. Mojumder, X. Fong, H. Choday, S. Park, and K. Roy, “Spin-Transfer Torque MRAMs for Low Power Memories: Perspective and Prospective,” IEEE J. Sensors vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 756-766, Apr. 2012, doi:10.1109/JSEN.2011.2124453. Invited Paper [PDF]

2011

  1. C. Augustine, X. Fong, B. Behin-Aein, and K. Roy, “Ultra-low power nano-magnet based computing: a system-level perspective,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 10, 4, pp. 778-788, Jul. 2011, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2010.2079941 [PDF]
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