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Team Hike (6 April 2022)

More than a year since our last hike, more than two years since the pandemic started. Just how fast life moves on. Easing into normalcy with an easy hike from HortPark to Keppel Island.

Finished off with superb lunch at Privé @ Keppel Bay. Thankful for the good time and company!

“Sky above, earth below, peace within. – Anon”

 

Military Infectious Disease Surveillance (19-25 February 2022)

South Korea [1-6]

Between 19 and 24 February 2022, a total of 4,027 new cases were reported from the South Korean military. Cases were reported from the Army (2,556 cases), Air Force (650  cases), Navy (286 cases), Marine Corps (264 cases), units under direct command of the defense ministry (186 cases), the Defense ministry (37 cases), the South Korea-U.S. Combined Forces Command (4 cases), and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (2 cases). As of 24 February 2022, the total caseload in the South Korean military is 14,943 with 3,880 active infections.

United States Forces Korea [7]

Between 15 to 21 February 2022, a total of 119 new infections were reported, including 21 imported cases. This brings the total number of infections in the USFK-affiliated community to 6,237 as of 21 February 2022.

United States [8]

As of 23 February 2022, the United States military recorded 385,855 COVID-19 cases, including 350,429 recoveries, 2,540 hospitalisations and 92 deaths. The distribution of cases are as follows – Army (126.699), Marine Corps (37,365), Navy (87,452), Air Force (75,680), National Guard (55,722), and other agencies (2,937). A total of 1,637,259 service members have been fully vaccinated – Army (603,589), Marine Corps (195,734), Navy (384,250), Air Force (453,686); 348,065 service members have received one dose of the vaccine – Army (283,580), Marine Corps (6,211), Navy (7,939) and Air Force (50,335).

Sources:

  1. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220219001600320?section=search
  2. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220220002700325?section=search
  3. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220221005200325?section=search
  4. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220222011100325?section=search
  5. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220223005100325?section=search
  6. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220224009300325?section=search
  7. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220222011100325?section=search
  8. https://www.defense.gov/Spotlights/Coronavirus-DOD-Response/

Military Infectious Disease Surveillance (12-18 February 2022)

South Korea [1-3]

  • On February 14, South Korea’s military reported 308 cases of COVID-19, raising the total caseload to 8,945. Of the new cases, 178 were from the Army, 12 were from the Marine Corps, 80 were from the Air Force, 17 were from the Navy, 13 were from units under the defense ministry, 5 cases were from the ministry, 2 were from the South Korea-US Combined Forces Command, and 1 was from the Joint Chiefs of Staff. 3,566 military personnel are under treatment.
  • On February 15, South Korea’s military reported 411 cases of COVID-19, raising the total caseload to 9,355. Of the new cases, 253 were from the Army, 18 were from the Marine Corps, 54 were from the Air Force, 32 were from the Navy, 50 were from units under the defense ministry and 4 were from the South Korea-US Combined Forces Command. 3,647 military personnel are under treatment. The United States Forces Korea also reported 162 cases over the past week, bringing the case load among the USFK-affiliated population to 6,118.
  • On February 17, South Korea’s military reported 458 cases of COVID-19, raising the total caseload to 10,282. Of the new cases, 279 were from the Army, 46 were from the Marine Corps, 75 were from the Air Force, 33 were from the Navy, 20 were from units under the defense ministry and 3 were from the South Korea-US Combined Forces Command. There were also 2 cases from the ministry.  2,784 military personnel are under treatment.

United States Forces Japan [4, 5]

The United States Forces Japan reported 115, 81 and 115 new cases across 13 installations on February 17, 16 and 15 respectively. None of the cases were hospitalised or in serious condition.

United States [6]

As of February 18, the United States military recorded 383,040 COVID-19 cases, including 339,612 recoveries, 2,522 hospitalisations and 92 deaths. The distribution of cases are as follows – Army (125,340), Marine Corps (37,315), Navy (87,005), Air Force (74,752), National Guard (55,722), and other agencies (2,906). A total of 1,633,657service members have been fully vaccinated – Army (600,752), Marine Corps (195,492), Navy (384,049), Air Force (453,364); 346,532 service members have received one dose of the vaccine – Army (281,541), Marine Corps (6,343), Navy (8,023) and Air Force (50,625).

Sources:

  1. http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20220214000715
  2. http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20220215000756
  3. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20220217006300325?section=news
  4. https://www.stripes.com/theaters/asia_pacific/2022-02-17/japan-usfj-covid-19-infections-thursday-5052407.html
  5. https://www.stripes.com/theaters/asia_pacific/2022-02-16/us-military-covid-19-coronavirus-tokyo-japan-new-sanno-5038640.html
  6. https://www.defense.gov/Spotlights/Coronavirus-DOD-Response/

Epidemiological, Clinical, and Phylogenetic Characteristics of the First SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in a Nursing Home of Singapore: A Prospective Observational Investigation

Abstract

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission has resulted in a significant burden among nursing home facilities globally. This prospective observational cohort study aims to define the potential sources of introduction and characteristics of SARS-CoV-2 transmission of the first nursing home facility in Singapore. An epidemiological serial point-prevalence survey of SARS-CoV-2 was conducted among 108 residents and 56 healthcare staff (HCS). In the current study, 14 (13%) residents and two (3.6%) HCS were diagnosed with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), with a case fatality rate (CFR) of 28.6% (4/14) among the residents. The median age of the infected residents was 86.5 [interquartile range (IQR) 78.5-88] and 85.7% were women. Five residents were symptomatic (35.7%) and the others were asymptomatic (64.3%). A higher proportion of residents who succumbed to COVID-19 had hypertension than those who recovered. The SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequencing showed lineage B.6 which is rare globally but common regionally during the early phase of the pandemic. Household transmission is a potential source of introduction into the nursing home, with at least six epidemiologically linked secondary cases. Male residents were less implicated due to the staff segregation plan by block. Among residents, a higher proportion of the non-survivors were asymptomatic and had hypertension compared with survivors.

Citation: Pang J, Tan HN, Mak TM, Octavia S, Maurer-Stroh S, Sirota FL, Chan MPC, Leong IYO, Koh VTJ, Ooi PL, Vasoo S, Fisher D, Cui L, Rafman H, Cutter J, Lee VJ. Epidemiological, Clinical, and Phylogenetic Characteristics of the First SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in a Nursing Home of Singapore: A Prospective Observational Investigation. Front Med (Lausanne). 2022 Jan 28;8:790177. doi: 10.3389/fmed.2021.790177. PMID: 35155470; PMCID: PMC8831716.

Full-Text Available Here

Risk Factors of Septic Metastatic Infection among Patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess in Singapore: A Case-Control Study

Abstract

Metastatic infection resulting from Klebsiella pneumoniae liver abscess (KPLA) results in high mortality and morbidity. This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with metastatic infection among patients with KPLA in Singapore. A retrospective case-control analysis among adult patients admitted to the National University Hospital with KPLA between 2013 and 2017 was conducted. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was conducted. Of the 116 KPLA patients, 38.8% had pulmonary metastatic infection. Length of hospital stay (P = 0.001) and intensive care unit admissions (P = 0.044) were significantly longer and greater, respectively, among the patients with metastatic infection. Sepsis-induced hypotension (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.88; 95% CI, 1.1-21.69), breathlessness (AOR, 5.10; 95% CI, 1.42-18.27), and abscess size (AOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.03) were associated independently with septic metastatic infection. Patients with KPLA who had breathlessness and larger abscess size are at a greater risk of septic metastatic infection.

Citation: Mukherjee S, Archuleta S, Pang J. Risk Factors of Septic Metastatic Infection among Patients with Klebsiella pneumoniae Liver Abscess in Singapore: A Case-Control Study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2022 Jan 24:tpmd210623. doi: 10.4269/ajtmh.21-0623. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 35073511.

Full-Text Available Here

Weather Factors Associated with Reduced Risk of Dengue Transmission in an Urbanized Tropical City

Abstract

This study assessed the impact of weather factors, including novel predictors-pollutant standards index (PSI) and wind speed-on dengue incidence in Singapore between 2012 and 2019. Autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model was fitted to explore the autocorrelation in time series and quasi-Poisson model with a distributed lag non-linear term (DLNM) was set up to assess any non-linear association between climatic factors and dengue incidence. In DLNM, a PSI level of up to 111 was positively associated with dengue incidence; incidence reduced as PSI level increased to 160. A slight rainfall increase of up to 7 mm per week gave rise to higher dengue risk. On the contrary, heavier rainfall was protective against dengue. An increase in mean temperature under around 28.0 °C corresponded with increased dengue cases whereas the association became negative beyond 28.0 °C; the minimum temperature was significantly positively associated with dengue incidence at around 23-25 °C, and the relationship reversed when temperature exceed 27 °C. An overall positive association, albeit insignificant, was observed between maximum temperature and dengue incidence. Wind speed was associated with decreasing relative risk (RR). Beyond prevailing conclusions on temperature, this study observed that extremely poor air quality, high wind speed, minimum temperature ≥27 °C, and rainfall volume beyond 12 mm per week reduced the risk of dengue transmission in an urbanized tropical environment.

Citation: Gui H, Gwee S, Koh J, Pang J. Weather Factors Associated with Reduced Risk of Dengue Transmission in an Urbanized Tropical City. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Dec 29;19(1):339. doi: 10.3390/ijerph19010339. PMID: 35010600; PMCID: PMC8751148.

Full-Text Available Here

Association between pet ownership and physical activity and mental health during the COVID-19 “circuit breaker” in Singapore

Abstract

Introduction: The negative impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on mental health and physical activity is well reported. While prior studies showed a positive influence of pet ownership on physical activity and mental health, the interactions between the pandemic and pet ownership are not well studied.

Objective: To determine the association between pet ownership, physical activity levels and mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from May 19 to July 13, 2020 among Singapore residents aged 21 to 64 years through a previously published questionnaire. Inverse probability treatment weighting was used to develop mixed-effects models for outcome comparisons. We recorded participant data on pet ownership, duration and intensity of physical activity, and RAND 36-item Health Survey mental health domains during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Results: The questionnaire was completed by 431 pet owners and 103 non-pet owners. A greater proportion of pet owners were female, non-married, employed and owned pets in the past. Pet owners reported 31.8 (95% CI 13.6 to 50; p = .001) more minutes per week of mild-intensity physical activity compared to non-pet owners. No statistically significant differences were found for moderate- and vigorous-intensity physical activity. Pet owners had better emotional well-being ( = 9.66, 95% CI 4.97 to 14.4; p < .001), energy ( = 8.29, 95% CI 3.46 to 13.1; p = .001) and social functioning ( = 11.2, 95% CI 5.03 to 17.4; p < .001) scores than non-pet owners. However, no statistically significant difference was observed for general health scores. Pet owner physical activity levels, general health, emotional well-being and energy scores correlated positively with pet attachment scores.

Conclusion: Pet ownership was associated with greater physical activity levels and better mental health, particularly in main caregivers with higher pet attachment scores. These findings suggest that pet ownership is beneficial to physical and mental well-being during periods of social isolation amidst a global pandemic.

Citation: Tan JSQ, Fung W, Tan BSW, Low JY, Syn NL, Goh YX, Pang J. Association between pet ownership and physical activity and mental health during the COVID-19 “circuit breaker” in Singapore. One Health. 2021 Nov 3;13:100343. doi: 10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100343. PMID: 34805473; PMCID: PMC8581575.

Full-Text Available Here

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