Monthly Archives: October 2021

Military Infectious Disease Surveillance (23-29 October 2021)

South Korea [1-7]

·       On 23 Oct, six new cases were reported bringing the total cases in the military population to 1,998. Among the new cases, four were Army officers.

·       On 24 Oct, six cases consisting of three Army officers, two draftees and a civilian worker were reported. This brings the total cases among the military population to 2,004.

·       On 25 Oct, seven new cases consisting of four Navy officers, two draftees and a civilian employee were reported, bringing the total cases among the military population to 2,011.

·       On 26 Oct, six new cases were reported bringing the total cases in the military population to 2,017. The new cases include a Navy officer and a draftee in Pyeongtaek, an officer of a unit under the direct wing of defense ministry in Nonsan whose family member was infected, an Air Force officer and two Army draftees.

·       On 27 Oct, two new cases were reported increasing the total cases in the military population to 2,019. The cases were an Army officer in Yangju and an officer of the Joint Chiefs of Staff in Seoul whose family member was infected.

·       On 28 Oct, four new cases were reported bringing the total cases among the military population to 2,023. The new cases include a Navy officer in Jinhae whose family member was tested positive and three Army draftees.

·       On 29 Oct, 12 new cases were reported bringing the total cases among the military population to 2,035. The cases include two Army conscripts in Paju who had return from vacation, a Marine based on the front-line island of Daecheongdo, two Army officer in Daejeon and a trainee at boot camp in Nonsan. As of 29 Oct, 1,971 (97%) has recovered and 64 are still under treatment.

United States Forces Korea (USFK) [8,9]

·       On 25 Oct, the USFK reported 9 new cases bringing the total cases among the USFK-affiliated population to 1,566. Four service members in Camp Humphreys were identified from 15 to 21 Oct. The remaining cases were four family members and a civilian contract worker.

·       On 28 Oct, the USFK reported 13 new cases bringing the total cases among the USFK-affiliated population to 1,579. The cases include seven American service members in Camp Humphreys, one service member and one Korean augmentation troop to the US Army at Camp Hovey.

United States Forces Japan (USFJ) [10]

·       The USFJ reported 14 cases across eight installations with no more than four active cases in the installation on 22 Oct. Yokosuka Naval Base reported 2 cases on 22 and 26 Oct. Yokota Air Base had identified 1 case on 22 Oct.

India [11]

·       Seven samples collected in September of which two of them were from Army officers posted in the Mhow Cantonment, have been identified as AY.4 a sub-lineage of Delta variant. The samples were send for testing after 44 Army officers at the Army War College, Mhow were tested positive for Covid-19.

CIDER’s risk assessment

Potential impact to SAF is high as (i) this outbreak is part of a global transmission of COVID-19 and (ii) there is sustained human-to-human transmission and potential airborne transmission (iii) though majority develop mild respiratory symptoms, the case fatality rate is currently at around 2.03% globally. (iv) More than 188 countries and regions have commenced vaccination globally using 23 approved vaccines.

Sources:  

  1. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211023001300315?section=national/defense
  2. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211024000654325
  3. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211025004600325?section=national/defense
  4. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211026003800325?section=national/defense
  5. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211027003000325?section=national/defense
  6. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211028004151325?section=national/defense
  7. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211029003800325?section=national/defense
  8. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211025007000325?section=national/defense
  9. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211028004151325?section=national/defense
  10. https://www.stripes.com/covid/2021-10-26/coronavirus-covid-19-japan-south-korea-vaccinations-3379375.html
  11. https://thefederal.com/covid-19/army-officers-among-7-affected-with-new-delta-variant-in-bhopal/  

 

Military Infectious Disease Surveillance (16-22 October 2021)

South Korea [1-3]

  • On October 16, the South Korean military reported one new COVID-19 case, bringing its caseload to 1,961.
  • On October 19, 8 new cases were reported in Army soldiers in the South Korean military. Six were trainees who were quarantined following an outbreak in their unit in Yeoncheon; all of whom were not fully vaccinated. The remaining two case were in an Army officer based in Yangju and an enlisted soldier in Paju; both of whom were fully vaccinated. The military has reported 290 breakthrough cases as of October 19.
  • On October 22, 6 COVID-19 cases were reported in South Korea’s military – 4 Army officers and 2 draftees. Five of them were fully vaccinated. This brings the total caseload among military personnel to 1,992, 1,923 (96%) of whom have fully recovered.

United States [4,5] 

  • Between October 13 and 20, the US military reported 3 deaths in service members, bringing the death toll for October to 11. While the death toll has more than doubled since late July, data from the latest week showed fewer deaths than in any week since August. 
  • As of October 20, the US military recorded 248,865 COVID-19 cases, including 238,284 recoveries, 2,257 hospitalisations and 70 deaths. The distribution of cases are as follows – Army (86,700), Marine Corps (28,547), Navy (48,490), Air Force (43,251), National Guard (40,280), and other agencies (1597). A total of 1,431,012 service members have been fully vaccinated – Army (494,669), Marine Corps (163,879), Navy (365,607) and Air Force (406,857); 315,075 service members have received one dose of the vaccine – Army (194,369), Marine Corps (24,875), Navy (21,712) and Air Force (74,119). 

United States Forces Korea (USFK) [6] 

  • As of October 20, 32 people affiliated with the USFK newly tested positive for the coronavirus. The cases were detected from October 9 to 16, including 18 US troops stationed at Camp Humphreys and Osan Air Base in Pyeongtaek. The remaining cases were in Department of Defense civilian employees (4), contract workers (5), and family members (5). This raises the case tally in the USFK-affiliated population to 1,557. More than 85% of the USFK affiliated community has been vaccinated.

Military Infectious Disease Surveillance (9-15 October 2021)

[1-4] South Korea

  • On 11 October 2021, 10 cases were reported from the Korean military, of which 5 cases were reported from the cluster infection at the boot camp in Yeoncheon. This increases the number of infections reported in this cluster to 39 cases. Remaining cases were reported from soldiers in Busan (4 cases) and Yangyang (1 case). This increases the total number of infections reported among the military population to 1,925 cases.
  • On 13 October 2021, a total of 14 cases were reported in the South Korean military, bringing the total number of cases to-date to 1,943. All new cases were reported amongst army soliders, except for a case from an Air Force airman, and 5 cases were reported from quarantined trainees from the Yeoncheon bootcamp cluster.
  • On 14 October 2021, 8 cases were reported from 7 army soldiers and a Navy member. Of the 7 new cases reported amongst soldiers, 3 were trainees from the Yeoncheon bootcamp who tested positive while in quarantine. This brings the total number of cases reported to-date to 1,951 cases, of which 107 are currently under treatment and the remaining havefully recovered.
  • On 15 October 2021, 9 cases were reported amongst 6 army soliders, 1 Navy member and 1 civilian employee from the defense ministry in Seoul. The last case was traced to a unit under the direct control of the defense ministry, and 5 cases amongst the 5 cases reported from soldiers were trainees at boot camps. This raises the cumulative cases in the military to 1,848 cases with 112 still under treatment.

Sources:  

  1. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211011002200325?section=search
  2. http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20211013000924
  3. http://www.koreaherald.com/view.php?ud=20211014000298
  4. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211015004800325

Military Infectious Disease Surveillance (2-8 October 2021)

[1-5] South Korea 

  • On 2 Oct, 46 cases amongst soldiers at an Army unit located in the border county of Yeoncheon has been reported. Of the cases, 41 (89%) were vaccine breakthrough infections and most of the confirmed patients were not showing any symptoms.
  • Between 5- 6 Oct, six cases including Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) officer and five Army soldiers was reported on 5 Oct. Eight cases among service members and one case in a civilian worker for the military has been reported on 6 Oct and all of them were fully vaccinated.
  • On 7 Oct, twelve cases among service members and two cases among civilian workers for the military have been reported, of which nine were breakthrough infections, raising the total number of breakthrough cases to 248.
  • On 8 Oct, twenty-two draftees at an Army boot camp just south of the inter-Korean border were reported positive for COVID-19 of whom only three had received their first dose of vaccine. Additionally, the defense ministry reported the first COVID-19 case from its headquarters in central Seoul. Another seven cases were reported by the military at other bases including three new enlistees at an Army boot camp in Busan and four soldiers, bringing the total caseload in the military to 1,896.

[6-7] United States Forces Korea 

  • On 1 Oct, the USFK reported 11 cases among American service members and six cases among individuals affiliated with the USFK. The service members were either from Camp Humphreys in Pyeongtaek, Camp Casey in Dongducheon, or the Osan, Suwon, and Seongnam air bases while two individuals were South Korean workers for the U.S. military and four family members.
  • On 7 Oct, the USFK reported 13 cases among people affiliated with USFK, including six service members. The latest cases raised the total number of infections reported among the USFK-affiliated population to 1,471.

[8] United States Forces Japan 

  • On 1 Oct, the US military bases in Japan reported 13 new cases of which 2 cases were from Yokosuka Naval Base and 11 cases from Kadena Air Base on Okinawa.

[9-10] United States 

  • On 4 Oct, death of a 51-year-old Navy petty officer due to coronavirus complications was announced making it the 14th such Navy fatality. The officer tested positive for COVID-19 on Sept. 17 however, his vaccination status has not been revealed. say whether he was among the 90% of its active-duty force that had been fully vaccinated.
  • As of 6 Oct, a total of 246,720 cases with 2,246 hospitalizations and 62 deaths have been reported in the US military. There were 86,107 cases in the Army, 47,988 cases in the Navy, 42,590 cases in the Air Force, 40,139 cases in the National Guard, 28,326 cases in the Marine Corps and 1,570 cases in the DoD Agencies.

Sources:  

  1. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211002002352325?section=national/defense
  2. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211005004800325?section=national/defense
  3. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211006004400325?section=national/defense
  4. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211007003700325?section=national/defense
  5. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211008004051325?section=national/defense
  6. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211001010100325?section=national/defense
  7. https://en.yna.co.kr/view/AEN20211007006300325?section=national/defense
  8. https://www.stripes.com/theaters/asia_pacific/2021-10-01/tokyo-japan-coronavirus-covid-19-typhoon-mindulle-3087150.html
  9. https://www.stripes.com/branches/navy/2021-10-07/sailor-death-covid-navy-reaches-85-percent-vaccinations-3159480.html
  10. https://www.defense.gov/Spotlights/Coronavirus-DOD-Response/

 

Wastewater surveillance to infer COVID-19 transmission: A systematic review

Abstract

Successful detection of SARS-COV-2 in wastewater suggests the potential utility of wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) for COVID-19 community surveillance. This systematic review aims to assess the performance of wastewater surveillance as early warning system of COVID-19 community transmission. A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Embase and the WBE Consortium Registry according to PRISMA guidelines for relevant articles published until 31st July 2021. Relevant data were extracted and summarized. Quality of each paper was assessed using an assessment tool adapted from Bilotta et al.’s tool for environmental science. Of 763 studies identified, 92 studies distributed across 34 countries were shortlisted for qualitative synthesis. A total of 26,197 samples were collected between January 2020 and May 2021 from various locations serving population ranging from 321 to 11,400,000 inhabitants. Overall sample positivity was moderate at 29.2% in all examined settings with the spike (S) gene having maximum rate of positive detections and nucleocapsid (N) gene being the most targeted. Wastewater signals preceded confirmed cases by up to 63 days, with 13 studies reporting sample positivity before the first cases were detected in the community. At least 50 studies reported an association of viral load with community cases. While wastewater surveillance cannot replace large-scale diagnostic testing, it can complement clinical surveillance by providing early signs of potential transmission for more active public health responses. However, more studies using standardized and validated methods are required along with risk analysis and modelling to understand the dynamics of viral outbreaks.

Citation: Shah, S., Gwee, S., Ng, J., Lau, N., Koh, J., & Pang, J. (2022). Wastewater surveillance to infer COVID-19 transmission: A systematic review. The Science of the Total Environment804, 150060. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2021.150060

Full Text Available Here

Factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and outbreak control measures in densely populated settings

Abstract

Starting with a handful of SARS-CoV-2 infections in dormitory residents in late March 2020, rapid transmission in their dense living environments ensued and by October 2020, more than 50,000 acute infections were identified across various dormitories in Singapore. The aim of the study is to identify combination of factors facilitating SARS-CoV-2 transmission and the impact of control measures in a dormitory through extensive epidemiological, serological and phylogenetic investigations, supported by simulation models. Our findings showed that asymptomatic cases and symptomatic cases who did not seek medical attention were major drivers of the outbreak. Furthermore, each resident had about 30 close contacts and each infected resident spread to 4.4 (IQR 3.5–5.3) others at the start of the outbreak. The final attack rate of the current outbreak was 76.2% (IQR 70.6–98.0%) and could be reduced by further 10% under a modified dormitory housing condition. These findings are important when designing living environments in a post COVID-19 future to reduce disease spread and facilitate rapid implementation of outbreak control measures.

Citation: Pung, R., Lin, B., Maurer-Stroh, S. et al. Factors influencing SARS-CoV-2 transmission and outbreak control measures in densely populated settings. Sci Rep 11, 15297 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94463-3

Full Text Available Here

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