Using a Spatial Mark-resight Model to Estimate the Parameters of a Wild Pig (Sus Scrofa) Population in Singapore

If the recent reports on wild boar encounters in Singapore have piqued your interest, do consider giving “Using a spatial mark-resight model to estimate the parameters of a wild pig (Sus scrofa) population in Singapore” a read.

Wild boar

A wild boar. Credits to Frank Vincentz.

Conducted from 2016 to 2017, this local study focused on estimating the population size and density of wild pigs, also known as wild boars, in the Central Catchment Nature Reserve (CCNR) of Singapore through the use of cameras, traps and tags to collect the necessary data. Using a spatial mark-resight model, the study “would aid wild pig management in the CCNR by providing the first population estimate of wild pigs in the CCNR and developing a feasible protocol for future monitoring programs.” (Koh, Webb, Leung, 2018, p. 496)

The study’s data collected showed an estimated population size of 163.46 ± 33.19 wild boars in the CCNR with 1.63 ± 0.33 wild boars per km2. The study also found that there was close to an equal ratio of male and female wild boars and that they were frequently observed roaming about individually, in pairs or in groups of 4.

The study concluded with a density map showing the spread of activity centres in the CCNR. It is possible that these high density locations corresponded with the availability of natural food sources for the wild boars.

With these findings in mind, future studies may be done to look into the diet of pigs, the availability of food sources (for pigs) in the CCNR area and the potential carrying capacity of CCNR wild boars.


Koh, J. J.-M., Webb, E. L., & Leung, L. K.-P. (2018). Using  a  spatial  mark-resight  model  to  estimate  the  parameters  of  a  wild  pig  (Sus  scrofa)  population  in  Singapore. Raffles Bulletin of Zoology, 66, 494-505.

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