Publications

2019

  1. Z. Zhu, K. Cai, J. Deng, V. P. K. Miriyala, H. Yang, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Electrical generation and detection of terahertz signal based on spin-wave emission from ferrimagnets,” under review [PDF]
  2. S. Samanta, K. Han, S. Xu, X. Gong, and X. Fong, “Impact of Ti Interfacial Layer on Resistive Switching Characteristics at sub-µA Current Level in SiOx-Based Flexible Cross-Point RRAM,” accepted for presentation at IEEE International Conference on Flexible and Printable Sensors and Systems (FLEPS), Jul. 2019, [PDF]
  3. S. Samanta, P. Zhang, U. Chand, K. Han, S. Xu, Y. Li, Aaron V.-Y. Thean, X. Gong, and X. Fong, “Robust Mobility and Variability Improvement of Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (IGZO) Thin–Film Transistor with E-beam Deposited SiO2 Passivation Layer,” in Proceedings of 26th International Workshop on Active-Matrix Flatpanel Displays and Devices (AM-FPD), Jul. 2019, Session 5-3 [PDF]
  4. S. Samanta, X. Gong, P. Zhang, K. Han, and X. Fong, “Bipolar resistive switching and synaptic characteristic modulation at sub-µA current level using novel Ni/SiOx/W cross-point structure,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 805, pp. 915-923, Oct. 2019, doi:110.1016/j.jallcom.2019.07.050 [PDF]
  5. V. P. K. Miriyala, Z. Zhu, G.-C. Liang, and X. Fong, “Spin-wave mediated interactions for Majority Computation using Skyrmions and Spin-torque Nano-oscillators,” Journal of Magnetism and Magnetic Materials vol. 486, art. 165271, Sep. 2019, doi:10.1016/j.jmmm.2019.165271 [PDF]
  6. Z. Zhu, J. Deng, G.-C. Liang, and X. Fong, “Voltage-input spintronic oscillator based on competing effect for extended oscillation regions,” Journal of Applied Physics vol. 125, iss. 18, art. 183902, May 2019, doi:10.1063/1.5092881 [PDF]
  7. V. P. K. Miriyala, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Influence of Size and Shape on the Performance of VCMA-Based MTJs,” IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices vol. 66, iss. 2, pp. 944-949, Feb. 2019, doi:10.1109/TED.2018.2889112 [PDF]

2018

  1. S. Samanta, K. Han, S. Xu, X. Gong, and X. Fong, “Digital and Analog Resistive Switching Characteristics under 200 nA Current Level using Novel Ni/SiOx/W 16×16 Cross-point Architecture,” in Proc. of 49th IEEE Semiconductor Interface Specialists Conference (SISC), Dec. 2018, 5.1, [PDF]
  2. Z. Zhu, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Damping-like spin-orbit-torque-induced magnetization dynamics in ferrimagnets based on Landau-Lifshitz-Bloch equation,” Journal of Applied Physics vol. 124, iss. 19, art. 193901, Nov. 2018, doi:10.1063/1.5048040 [PDF]
  3. L. Xiang, Y. Wang, P. Zhang, X. Fong, X. Wei, and Y. Hu, “Configurable multifunctional integrated circuits based on carbon nanotube dual-material gate devices,” Nanoscale vol. 10, iss. 46, pp. 21857-21864, Oct. 2018, doi:10.1039/C8NR08259F [PDF]
  4. V. P. K. Miriyala, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “FANTASI: A Novel Device‐to‐Circuits Simulation Framework for Fast Estimation of Write Error Rates in Spintronics,” in Proc. of International Conference on Simulation of Semiconductor Processes and Devices 2018, Sep. 2018, pp. 53-57, doi:10.1109/SISPAD.2018.8551656 [PDF]
  5. Z. Zhu, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Theoretical proposal for determining angular momentum compensation in ferrimagnets,” Physical Review B vol. 97, iss. 18, art. 184410, May 2018, doi:10.1103/PhysRevB.97.184410 [PDF]
  6. J. Deng, X. Fong, and G.-C. Liang, “Electric-field-induced three-terminal pMTJ switching in the absence of an external magnetic field,” Applied Physics Letters vol. 112, iss. 25, art. 252405, Jun. 2018, doi:10.1063/1.5027759 [PDF]
  7. S. Deb, A. Chattopadhyay, A. Basu, and X. Fong, “Domain Wall Motion-based XOR-like Activation Unit with A Programmable Threshold,” in Proc. of International Joint Conference on Neural Networks 2018, Jul. 2018, pp. 463-470, doi:10.1109/IJCNN.2018.8489146 [PDF]
  8. S. Deb, T. Vatwani, A. Chattopadhyay, A. Basu, and X. Fong, “Domain Wall Motion-based Dual-Threshold Activation Unit for Low-Power Classification of Non-Linearly Separable Functions,” IEEE Transactions Biomedical Circuits and Systems vol. 12, iss. 6, pp. 1410-1421, Aug. 2018, doi:10.1109/TBCAS.2018.2867038 [PDF]

2017

  1. Y. Seo, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Fast and Disturb-Free Nonvolatile Flip-Flop Using Complementary Polarizer MTJ,” IEEE Transactions Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems vol. 25, iss. 4, pp. 1573-1577, Apr. 2017, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2016.2631981 [PDF]
  2. Z. Pajouhi, X. Fong, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Yield, area, and energy optimization in STT-MRAMs using failure-aware ECC,” ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems vol. 13, iss. 2, Mar. 2017, pp. 1437-1442, doi:10.7873/DATE.2015.0145 [PDF]

2016

  1. G. Narasimman, S. Roy, X. Fong, K. Roy, C.-H. Chang, and A. Basu, “A Low-voltage, Low Power STDP Synapse Implementation using Domain-wall Magnets for Spiking Neural Networks,” in Proc. of 2016 IEEE Int. Symposium on Circuits and Systems (ISCAS), May 2016, pp. 914-917, doi:10.1109/ISCAS.2016.7527390 (Invited Paper) [PDF]
  2. X. Fong, Y. Kim, R. Venkatesan, S. H. Choday, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Spin-transfer Torque Memories: Devices, Circuits and Systems,” Proceedings of the IEEE vol. 104, iss. 7, pp. 1449-1488, Jul. 2016, doi:10.1109/JPROC.2016.2521712 [PDF]
  3. X. Fong, R. Venkatesan, D. Lee, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Embedding read-only memory in spin-transfer torque MRAM based on-chip caches,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (TVLSI) Systems vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 992-1002, Mar. 2016, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2015.2439733 [PDF]
  4. X. Fong, Y. Kim, K. Yogendra, D. Fan, A. Sengupta, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Spin-transfer torque devices for logic and memory applications: prospects and perspectives,” IEEE Transactions on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems vol. 35, iss. 1, pp. 1-22, Jan. 2016, doi:10.1109/TCAD.2015.2481793 Invited Paper. [PDF]
  5. A. Reza, Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Modeling and Evaluation of Topological Insulator/Ferromagnet Heterostructure Based Memory,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices (TED) vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 1359-1367, Mar. 2016, doi:10.1109/TED.2016.2520941 [PDF]
  6. A. Jaiswal, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Comprehensive Scaling Analysis of Current Induced Switching in Magnetic Memories Based on In-Plane and Perpendicular Anisotropies,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 6, iss. 2, pp. 120-133, Jun. 2016, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2016.2547698 [PDF]
  7. Y. Seo, K.-W. Kwon, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “High Performance and Energy-Efficient On-Chip Cache Using Dual Port (1R/1W) Spin-Orbit Torque MRAM,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems vol. 6, iss. 3, pp. 293-304, Sep. 2016, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2016.2547701 [PDF]

2015

  1. Z. Pajouhi, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Device/Circuit/Architecture co-design of reliable STT-MRAM,” in Proc. of IEEE/ACM Design, Automation &Test in Europe (DATE), Mar. 2015, pp. 1437-1442, doi:10.7873/DATE.2015.0145 [PDF]
  2. K. Yogendra, M.-C. Chen, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Domain wall motion based low power hybrid spin-CMOS 5-bit Flash analog data converter,” in Proc. of 16th IEEE Int. Symposium on Quality Electronic Design (ISQED), Mar. 2015, pp. 604-609, doi:10.1109/ISQED.2015.7085496 [PDF]
  3. A. Ranjan, S. Venkataramani, X. Fong, K. Roy, and A. Raghunathan, “Approximate storage for energy efficient spintronic memories,” in Proc. of IEEE/ACM Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE), Mar. 2015, pp. 1-6, doi:10.1145/2744769.2744799 [PDF]
  4. R. Venkatesan, S. Venkataramani, X. Fong, K. Roy, and A. Raghunathan, “Spintastic: Spin-based stochastic logic for energy-efficient computing,” in Proc. of IEEE/ACM Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE), Mar. 2015, pp. 1575-1578, [PDF]
  5. Y. Kim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Spin-orbit torque based spin-dice: a true random number generator,” IEEE Magnetics Letters vol. 6, art. 3001004, Dec. 2015, doi:10.1109/LMAG.2015.2496548 [PDF]
  6. K. Kwon, X. Fong, P. Wijesinghe, P. Panda, and K. Roy, “High-Density & Robust STT-MRAM Array through Device/Circuit/Architecture Interactions,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 14, iss. 6, pp. 1024-1034, Nov. 2015, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2015.2456510 [PDF]
  7. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C.-H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Optimizing Emerging Non-Volatile Memories for Dual-Mode Applications: Data Storage and Key Generator,” IEEE Trans. on Computer-Aided Design of Integrated Circuits and Systems (TCAD) vol. 34, no. 7, pp. 1176-1187, Jul. 2015, doi:10.1109/TCAD.2015.2427251 [PDF]
  8. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C.-H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Highly Reliable Spin-Transfer Torque Magnetic RAM based Physical Unclonable Function With Multi-Response-Bits Per Cell,” IEEE Trans. on Information Forensics and Security (TIFS) vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1630-1642, Aug. 2015, doi:10.1109/TIFS.2015.2421481 [PDF]
  9. Y. Seo, X. Fong, K.-W. Kwon and K. Roy, “Spin-Hall Magnetic Random-Access Memory with Dual Read/Write Ports for On-chip Caches,” IEEE Magnetics Letters vol. 6, art. 3000204, Apr. 2015, doi:10.1109/LMAG.2015.2422260 [PDF]
  10. Y. Seo, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Domain wall coupling based STT-MRAM for on-chip cache applications,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (TED) vol. 62, iss. 2, pp. 554-560, Feb. 2015, doi:10.1109/TED.2014.2377751 [PDF]
  11. Y. Kim, X. Fong, K.-W. Kwon, M.-C. Chen, and K. Roy, “Multi-level spin-orbit torque MRAMs,” IEEE Trans. on Electron Devices (TED) vol. 62, iss. 2, pp. 561-568, Jan. 2015, doi:10.1109/TED.2014.2377721 [PDF]
  12. A. Sengupta, Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Spin-orbit torque induced spike-timing dependent plasticity,” Appl. Phys. Lett. (APL), vol. 106, iss. 9, 093704, Mar. 2015, doi:10.1063/1.4914111 [PDF]
  13. K. Roy, D. Fan, X. Fong,Y. Kim, M. Sharad, S. Paul, S. Chatterjee, S. Bhunia, and S. Mukhopadhyay, “Exploring spin transfer torque devices for unconventional computing,” IEEE J. on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems (JETCAS) vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 5-16, Mar. 2015, doi:10.1109/JETCAS.2015.2405171. Invited Paper [PDF]

2014

  1. X. Fong, M.-C. Chen, and K. Roy, “Generating true random numbers using on-chip complementary polarizer spin-transfer torque magnetic tunnel junctions,” in Proc. of 72nd Device Research Conf. (DRC), Jun. 2014, pp. 103-104, doi:10.1109/DRC.2014.6872318 [PDF]
  2. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C. H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Highly reliable memory-based physical unclonable function using spin-transfer torque MRAM,” in Proc. of 2014 IEEE Int. Symp. on Circuits and Systems, Jun. 2014, pp. 2169-2172, doi:10.1109/ISCAS.2014.6865598 [PDF]
  3. L. Zhang, X. Fong, C. H. Chang, Z. H. Kong, and K. Roy, “Feasibility study of emerging non-volatile memory based physical unclonable functions,” in Proc. of 6th Int. Memory Workshop, May 2014, pp. 1-4, doi:10.1109/IMW.2014.6849384 [PDF]
  4. X. Fong, Y. Kim, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Failure mitigation techniques for 1T-1MTJ spin-transfer torque MRAM bit-cells,” IEEE Trans. Very Large Scale Integration (TVLSI) Systems vol. 22, iss. 2, pp. 384-395, Feb. 2014, doi:10.1109/TVLSI.2013.2239671 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Units of “Nominal J_{C}^{}” in Table I should be \text{``MA/cm}^{2}_{}\text{''} instead of \text{``mA/cm}^{2}_{}\text{''}
  5. X. Fong, R. Venkatesan, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Non-volatile complementary polarizer spin-transfer torque (CPSTT) on-chip caches: a device/circuit/systems perspective,” IEEE Trans. Magnetics (TMAG) vol. 50, iss. 10, art. 3400611, Oct. 2014, doi:10.1109/TMAG.2014.2326858 [PDF]
  6. Z. Al Azim, X. Fong, T. Ostler, R. Chantrell, and K. Roy, “Laser induced magnetization reversal for detection in optical interconnects,” IEEE Electron Device Letters (EDL) vol. 35, iss. 12, pp. 1317-1319, Oct. 2014, doi:10.1109/LED.2014.2364232. [PDF]
  7. K.-W. Kwon, S. H. Choday, Y. Kim, X. Fong, S. P. Park, and K. Roy, “SHE-NVFF: spin Hall effect based nonvolatile flip flop for power gating architecture,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 35, iss. 4, pp. 488-490, Apr. 2014, doi:10.1109/LED.2014.2304683 [PDF]

2013

  1. X. Fong, and K. Roy, “A hybrid spin-charge mixed-mode simulation framework for evaluating STT-MRAM bit-cells utilizing multiferroic tunnel junctions,” in Proc. of 2013 Int. Conf. on Simulation of Semicond. Processes and Dev. (SISPAD), Sep. 2013, pp. 372-375, doi:10.1109/SISPAD.2013.6650652 [PDF]
  2. X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Robust low-power multi-terminal STT-MRAM,” in Proc. of 13th Non-volatile Memory Technology Symposium (NVMTS), Aug. 2013, pp. 1-4, doi:10.1109/NVMTS.2013.6851056 [PDF]
  3. X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Low-power robust complementary polarizer STTMRAM (CPSTT) for on-chip caches,” in Proc. of  5th Int. Memory Workshop (IMW 2013), May 2013, pp. 88-91, doi:10.1109/IMW.2013.6582105 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Parameters in Table I should be: V_{DD}~=~1.4\text{V}
      2. Table II should have same values for CPSTT and SSCs: I_{C}~=~210{\mu}\text{A},~J_{C}~=~8.4\text{MA/cm}^{2}_{}
  4. M. Sharad, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Exploring the design of ultra-low energy global interconnects based on spin torque switches,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Electron Device Meeting (IEDM) 2013, Dec. 2013, pp. 32.6.1-32.6.4, doi:10.1109/IEDM.2013.6724739 [PDF]
  5. M. Sharad, R. Venkatesan, X. Fong, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Energy-efficient MRAM access scheme using hybrid circuits based on spin-torque sensors,” in Proc. of 2013 IEEE Sensors, Nov. 2013, pp. 2-7, doi:10.1109/ICSENS.2013.6688182 [PDF]
  6. M. Sharad, R. Venkatesan, X. Fong, A. Raghunathan, and K. Roy, “Reading spin-torque memory with spin-torque sensors,” in Proc. of 2013 IEEE/ACM Int. Symp. on Nanoscale Architectures (NANOARCH), Jul. 2013, pp. 40-41, doi:10.1109/NanoArch.2013.6623040 [PDF]
  7. X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Complementary polarizers STT-MRAM (CPSTT) for on-chip caches,” IEEE Electron Device Letters vol. 34, iss. 2, pp. 232-234, Feb. 2013, doi:10.1109/LED.2012.2234079 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Page 232, Title: “Complimentary” should be replaced with “Complementary”
      2. Page 232, Column 1, Last sentence of Section I: “complimentary polarizers” should be replaced with “complementary polarizers”
      3. Page 233, title in running header: “COMPLIMENTARY” should be replaced with “COMPLEMENTARY”
  8. D. Lee, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “R-MRAM: A ROM-Embedded STT MRAM Cache,” IEEE Electron Dev. Lett. vol. 34, iss. 10, pp. 1256-1258, Oct. 2013, doi:10.1109/LED.2013.2279137 [PDF]
  9. N. N. Mojumder, X. Fong, C. Augustine, S. K. Gupta, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Dual pillar spin-transfer torque MRAMs for low power applications,” ACM Journal on Emerging Technologies in Computing Systems (JETC) vol. 9, iss. 2, art. 14, May 2013, doi:10.1145/2463585.2463590 [PDF]

2012

  1. G. Panagopoulos, C. Augustine, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Exploring variability and reliability of multi-level STT-MRAM cells,” in Proc. 70th Device Research Conference (DRC), Jun. 2012, pp. 139-140, doi:10.1109/DRC.2012.6257003 [PDF]
  2. C. Augustine, N. N. Mojumder, X. Fong, S. H. Choday, S. P. Park, and K. Roy, “STT-MRAMs for future universal memories: Perspective and prospective,” in Proc. 28th Int. Conf. on Microelectronics (MIEL), May 2012, pp. 349-355, doi:10.1109/MIEL.2012.6222872 [PDF]
  3. X. Fong, S. H. Choday, and K. Roy, “Bit-cell level optimization for non-volatile memories using magnetic tunnel junctions and spin-transfer torque switching,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 172-181, Jan. 2012, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2011.2169456 [PDF]
  4. C. Augustine, N. Mojumder, X. Fong, H. Choday, S. Park, and K. Roy, “Spin-Transfer Torque MRAMs for Low Power Memories: Perspective and Prospective,” IEEE J. Sensors vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 756-766, Apr. 2012, doi:10.1109/JSEN.2011.2124453. Invited Paper [PDF]

2011

  1. X. Fong, S. K. Gupta, N. N. Mojumder, S. H. Choday, C. Augustine, and K. Roy, “KNACK: a hybrid spin-charge mixed-mode simulator for evaluating different genres of spin-transfer torque MRAM bit-cells,” in Proc. of  2011 Int. Conf. on Simulation of Semicond. Processes and Dev. (SISPAD), Sep. 2011, pp. 51-54, doi:10.1109/SISPAD.2011.6035047 [PDF]
    • Errata
      1. Equation (4) should be: \frac{\partial\widehat{m}}{\partial t}=-\left|{\gamma_{}^{}}\right|\widehat{m}\times\left(\overrightarrow{H}_\text{EFF}+\overrightarrow{STT}\right)+{\alpha}\widehat{m}\times\frac{\partial\widehat{m}}{\partial t}
      2. Equation (11) should be: \overrightarrow{STT}_{}^{}=\frac{{\hbar}g\left(\widehat{m}\cdot\widehat{m}_{p}\right)J_{MTJ}}{2q{\mu}_{0}M_{S}t_{FL}}\left(\widehat{m}\times\widehat{m}_{p}\right)+\epsilon'\frac{{\hbar}J_{MTJ}}{2q\mu_{0}M_{S}t_{FL}}\widehat{m}_{p}
  2. C. Augustine, X. Fong, B. Behin-Aein, and K. Roy, “Ultra-low power nano-magnet based computing: a system-level perspective,” IEEE Trans. Nanotechnol. (TNANO) vol. 10, 4, pp. 778-788, Jul. 2011, doi:10.1109/TNANO.2010.2079941 [PDF]

2010

  1. C. Augustine, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “Dual ferroelectric capacitor architecture and its application to TAG RAM,” in Proc. of IEEE Int. Conf. on Integrated Circuit Design Technology (ICICDT) 2010, Jun. 2010, pp. 24-38, doi:10.1109/ICICDT.2010.5510750 [PDF]

2009

  1. C. Augustine, X. Fong, B. Behin-Aein, and K. Roy, “A comprehensive nano-magnet based logic synthesis for ultra-low power digital systems,” SRC TECHCON 2009 (Best Paper in Session Award)
  2. C. Augustine, B. Behin-Aein, X. Fong, and K. Roy, “A design methodology and device/circuit/architecture compatible simulation framework for low-power magnetic quantum cellular automata systems,” in Proc. of 14th Asia and South Pacific Design Automation Conf. (ASP-DAC) 2009, Jan. 2009, pp. 847-852, doi:10.1109/ASPDAC.2009.4796586 [PDF]

2006

  1. A. Raychowdhury, X. Fong, Q. Chen, and K. Roy, “Analysis of super cut-off transistors for ultralow power digital logic circuits,” in Proc. of 2006 Int. Symposium on Low Power Electronics and Design (ISLPED), Oct. 2006, pp. 2-7, doi:10.1109/LPE.2006.4271798 (Best Paper Award) [PDF]

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