Abstract We have seen that we can get into inconsistent states in multiplayer games.  In this lecture, we will see how players and servers can predict what the “right” states are, and how they can compensate for incorrect states in making decisions.


  • The unreal Tournament’s networking component is described here on the Epic Games website.
  • Convergence is described by [Smed06] in Section 9.3.2 in the context of dead reckoning.
  • Lag Compensation techniques used in Half Life in [Armi06] Section 6.3.2 and also in great details online at Valve’s Wiki.
  • Predictions, both local and opponent predictions, are discussed in [Armi06] Section 6.2.
  • Dead reckoning is discussed in Section 9.3 of [Smed06]. A classic article by Jesse Aronson can be found online [Aron97].
J. Smed and H Hakonen, “Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games”, Wiley, July 2006. [NUS LINC]
G. Armitage, M. Claypool and P. Branch, “Networking and Online Games: Understanding and Engineering Multiplayer Internet Games,” Wiley, June 2006. [NUS LINC]
J. Aronson, “Dead Reckoning: Latency Hiding for Networked Games”, Gamasutra, September 1997. [Gamasutra]

You can preview the slides for this lecture here.

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