Soysal, Y. N. (1998). ‘Toward a postnational model of membership’. In Shafir, G. (ed.) The citizenship debates: A reader. Ch. 10, p. 189-217.

Key Concepts & Guidance Questions

  • What are the new concepts of citizenship in postwar nations? (p.189-190)
  • What are the differences between citizens and denizens? (p.190-191)
  • What are the primary differences between the classical model of citizenship and the post national model?
  • What are the crucial challenges related to this post national membership with respect to:
    • Territorial dimension? (p.193)
    • Rights and privileges implied in the multiplicity of such memberships? (p. 193-194)
    • What is the basis for the legitimation of such memberships? (p. 194)
    • Organization of such membership? (p. 195)
    • The developments that explain the reconfiguration of citizenship? (p. 195-198)
  • What are the fundamental elements of human rights discourse? (p. 200-210)

Application Questions

  • Where does Singapore fit in this citizens and denizens debate?
  • What forms of human rights are exhibited in Singapore society?