Embracing gender differences is the way to succeed

“Lack of recognition of basic differences men and women have like career cycles, communication styles, or attitudes to power is enough to eliminate one gender and prefer the other” notes Avivah Wittenberg-Cox, CEO of 20-first, one of the world’s leading gender consulting firms, and author of Seven Steps to Leading a Gender-Balanced Business. The author of the article published in the Harvard Business Review argues that “denying the existence of differences between men and women was a useful phase to go through, but now that the reality of gender has changed, so should our approach”. To read the full article click here.

“DISRUPT. Filipina Women: Proud. Loud. Leading Without A Doubt” Book Launch on April 17, 2015

Women’s Pathways to Leadership in Asia in collaboration with Bridging GAP is delighted to announce the launch of DISRUPT. Filipina Women: Proud. Loud. Leading Without A Doubt published by the Filipina Women’s Network in 2014. The event is to be held on April 17, 2015 at Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy, National University of Singapore. You may refer to the attached flyer for more information. Please register your interest to attend at lkyschoolevents@nus.edu.sg.


Women’s leadership: How to close the gender gap in Asia

Asian Development Bank had an interview with Dr. Astrid Tuminez to discuss the issue of women’s leadership in Asia and the ways to improve the advancement of women in high-levels of management. Read the interview here.

WPLA marks International Women’s Day 2015

This year to mark the International Women’s Day, WPLA in collaboration with the LKYSPP Bridging Gender and Policy Group partnered with the leading tech companies to host a panel discussion. The event was widely attended by the students, staff and members of the public.

Photo Courtesy of Bridging GAP Group

The panel discussion focused on “Women Leaders in Technology: Why We Do What We Do?” and featured a panel of four remarkable women leaders from such tech companies as Microsoft, HP, Twitter and ConneXionsAsia.

  • Amelia Agrawal, Regional Director of OEM Marketing, Microsoft
  • Elizabeth Hernandez, Vice President, Corporate Affairs, Asia Pacific & Japan, HP
  • Frederique Covington, International Marketing Director, Twitter
  • Rosaline Chow Koo, Founder and CEO, ConneXionsAsia

Dr. Astrid S. Tuminez was the moderator of the discussion.

The panelists shared their unique personal stories of how they achieved career success in the technology sector and the challenges they encountered along the way, whether the work-life balance is a myth, and how they contributed to the success of their companies.

One of the takeaways of the event relates to the risk women associate with the career in tech: “Are women less risk-taking, therefore less attracted to high-stakes tech industry? There is a steep learning curve that requires some confidence to take, not just in tech. Mentors need to convey to girls that it’s important to take risks.”


Photo Courtesy of Bridging GAP Group


15 Women That Are Changing The World in 2015

Students take part during the “One Billion Rising” dance campaign at all-girls school St Scholastica college in Manila

Photo Courtesy of World Economic Forum


In anticipation of International Women’s Day 2015 World Economic Forum shares the stories of 15 women changing the world in 2015. Read on the stories of these remarkable bright women to get inspired to work harder towards achieving your goals and creating gender-inclusive environment: https://agenda.weforum.org/2015/03/15-women-changing-the-world-in-2015/?utm_content=buffer5c0ba&utm_medium=social&utm_source=facebook.com&utm_campaign=buffer. 




Women Leadership in the Non-Profit Sector Case Study Series: Lili Kasoem

Aceh’s guardian angel

Lili KasoemLily Kasoem is a mother to five children and a grandmother to 6 grandchildren. At 64 years of age, she discovered a renewed sense of purpose. Having seen the catastrophe in Aceh, Indonesia,  Lily decided to use her leadership experience in the private sector to help Aceh’s needy.

“I did not have any desire to be more than I had become after what I saw in Aceh. I became very humble.”- Lily Kasoem

The Tsunami that devastated Aceh had a huge impact on people all over Indonesia. However, Lily Kasoem was one of those people who did something about it – Lily founded the Titian Foundation to help those affected by the catastrophe.

Tapping on business success with confidence

An entrepreneur with a heart, Lily was known for delivering great results without compromising her integrity and empathy for others. These qualities helped her build strong personal and professional networks, which proved valuable as she set up the Titian Foundation. Lily raised funds through her network to build 4 schools and 5 community learning centres and to train 500 teachers annually. Today, the Titian Foundation sponsors 500 children.

“Anyone can do what I can do – but not everyone has the credibility – I have experience, a good track record upon which I have demonstrated leadership and I am not afraid to talk about my dreams and achievements. People have confidence in me.”

Having worked in the private sector, Lily had an appreciation for the power dynamics between the two genders and applied this understanding to her communication with others. With women, she emphasised successful relationship, helping families, offering emotional stability, among others. However, with men, she focused much more on results, outcomes and processes.

Creating a movement

In Indonesia, there is a need for women to step up. While there are many female leaders, they remain restricted to a small sphere of influence – their families and immediate social circles. Lily’s path to leadership, started with a small sphere of influence, but through her networks, and efforts at raising awareness and publicity, she rallied her networks. Recognising that leadership, particularly in non-profit is never an individual effort, Lily invited people to join her on her journey in whatever way they could.

Lily believed in leading by doing. She was not afraid to work alongside her subordinates because she believed in being a role model to those who worked for her. In Indonesia, people respected their leaders more when they removed hierarchies and worked alongside their employees –it demonstrated a deeper sense of respect for employees. The more she connected with people, the more they seemed to appreciate her values and vision equally.

Personal, Family and Cultural Background

Lily was blessed with great role models herself – her parents. While her father taught her mutual respect and perseverance, her mother taught her how to overcome the fear of failure. Family support is a critical element of Lily’s ability to dream. She has become a role model for her children today. Her decision to leave the family business made simpler by her family circumstances. Her children are married and supporting themselves. This made it easier to expand her resources and attention beyond her family.

In Indonesia, women are often able to pursue other interests because they have the luxury of access to domestic help at affordable costs. Society holds women in high esteem as the carers of the family, and the unwavering pillar of a family’s success and happiness. In this respect, Lily’s vision of setting up a foundation that helped Acehnese children was easier because (a) it was nationalistic, and (b) she was a woman. The same dedication and perseverance that she showed her own children was extended to the children of Aceh.  However, she was prepared to take a leap that not many others were brave enough to take. Both men and women had deep admiration for and were deeply humbled by this.

Why Women As Non-Profit Leaders?

Women are naturally inclined to leadership. On a regular basis, they manage their families and are instrumental in molding future leaders. Borrowing a quote from Mrs. Hillary Clinton, Lily believes,” If you give money to men, it’s for him. If you give money to women, it is for her whole family.”

Indonesian women like to work without acknowledgement – that is why female Indonesia leaders remain unknown. Culturally, Indonesian women will never deliberately outshine their husbands – anything they do, they do quietly. Women leaders in Indonesia tend to perform their leadership roles with a bigger purpose in mind. To them, it is less about the fame and recognition that comes with the position. This is why women are less concerned about feminism in Indonesia. They go about their leadership work in their own way. More women need to stand tall and step into the limelight now. It is merely the next step in their journey.


The Women Leadership in Non-Profit Case Study Series is led by the Women’s Pathways to Leadership in Asia (WPLA) and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore. “Women Leadership in Nonprofit Case Study: Lili Kasoem” authored by Meera Jethmal, an alumni of the Lee Kuan Yew  School of Public Policy. 


Women Leadership in the Non-Profit Sector Case Study Series: Rahayu Saraswati

Opportunity Favours The Bold

Rahayu Saraswati was an upcoming actress in Indonesia. She had the privilege of coming from a high-profile family in Indonesia. As her career grew, Rahayu started to realize something was missing.  Her journey of discovery led to her adventure of leadership in championing anti-trafficking in Indonesia. Rahayu formed the ID4F (Indonesia for Freedom) an anti- human trafficking organization, the first of its kind to raise awareness and tackle human trafficking issues at a national level, run by an Indonesian.  ID4F takes a 4-stage approach to protecting victims (and potential victims) of human trafficking – prevention, interception, prosecution and reintegration.

Finding Purpose

Having learnt about realities of human trafficking through media, Rahayu started looking for places to volunteer in Indonesia. Research into the state of affairs in Indonesia led to the realization that there was (i) no real focus on human trafficking issues (migration and refugee reintegration took precedence), and (ii) no organization that was headed by an Indonesian. Meanwhile, she came across some astounding cases of victims. This frustration of not being able to contribute led to the realization that she had to take control. This realization gave her purpose, and the confidence to start her own foundation.

Role Models to Emulate

When Rahayu met Cecelia Flores Oebanda, who led the Visayan Forum Foundation, focused on human trafficking issues in the Philippines, she realized what the missing link was. Cecelia became an important mentor to Rahayu in understanding the challenges, and what it took to champion a cause she felt so passionately about.

Overcoming Obstacles
(i) Her inexperience was a real challenge. She was taking on human trafficking in Indonesia at a national level. She was knocking on doors no one had knocked before.

(ii) Rahayu was a young, single and successful career woman. On the one hand, she used her popularity as an actress to inspire people; on the other she faced critical judgment at every corner.

Rahayu knew she was stepping into dangerous territory with her idea. Her family had political ties, and were often in the public’s view. She feared  putting her family at risk. However, after much thinking, Rahayu realized that not taking the chance was worse than taking it. She decided she had to be bold.

“But I am fearless. I just have to prod through. I have a supportive family, and I just won’t give up.”

The Foundation of Family

Rahayu’s family had great influence in her growth as a leader. Her parents had different backgrounds. While her father was born with a silver spoon, her mother had no spoon at all. Her mother’s was a Cinderella story. She was born in the slums but married into wealth. As a result, she had the strongest beliefs in idealism and faith. Having seen both sides of the picture, Rahayu, was grounded in her views of reality, and was fortunate enough to have the means to do something about it. Both her parents had foundations for causes they cared about. Her father always said that his stature was a privilege and a very heavy responsibility. That was the environment she grew up in.

Overcoming Colonial Mindsets

Indonesians have become used to living a way of life that is more subservient and insular, a mindset that has its roots in the colonial period. Most people are content with their ways of life. They forget that they have the opportunity to do so much more. As a result, there is no real ownership of anything.

“Our country is so rich with resources. If you plant something, it grows. It’s okay to be content with a simple countryside lifestyle, but it does not work in a globalised state.”

Personal Background

Rahayu_PicRahayu found her background worked against her sometimes. In society obsessed with status and competition for publicity, oftentimes, she had to overcome people who misconstrued her dreams as showing off or being selfish about her needs and not caring enough of the impact on her parents. In this case, her personal background was a reason for a lack of trust. However, she turned to corporations, foundations, and organisations that were globally making a positive difference in human trafficking. They were her champions.

Why women as non profit leaders?

Women are natural social entrepreneurs. A mother’s role is about education, women, children. Home is the realm of the women. These things matter in more non-profit. Poverty is present at every corner in Indonesia. We live our lives watching people struggle. Women are more receptive to this, and automatically desire to make a difference. Even corporate women leaders are active socially.

Focusing on human trafficking, it’s even easier. As a women, what helps is the stereotype that women have more of a feel for the human-trafficking challenge because it is often portrayed as a gender challenge, rather than a human challenge to overcome (although this too, needs to change).

Indonesia culture makes it easy for women to be leaders. North Sumatra has a matriarchal culture. Mothers are the head of households. Javanese culture is patriarchal, but women hold a special place because they are wives and mothers. In Java, we believe heaven is at the feet of the mother.

It’s all a matter of whether you want to lead or not.


The Women Leadership in Non-Profit Case Study Series is led by the Women’s Pathways to Leadership in Asia (WPLA) and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore. “Women Leadership in Nonprofit Case Study: Lili Kasoem” authored by Meera Jethmal, an alumni of the Lee Kuan Yew  School of Public Policy.  


Women Leadership in the Non-Profit Sector Case Study Series: Julia Suryakusuma

Pioneering Democracy in Indonesia

Julia’s rise as a leader and influential thinker was during the repressive New Order and early reformation era. Motivated by her desire to change the status quo and defend the oppressed, it was the perfect time for her to express herself as a voice for gender equality. Her passion, enthusiasm and bravery was the basis of taking up the challenge to be an activist on gender, human rights and democracy. Julia’s credibility as a leader grew by constantly introducing gender issues in the public agenda, which proved effective in giving her leverage with the media.

Julia initially gained recognition as a writer between 1971 and 1972 when she won a number of writing competitions for high school students in Jakarta. Upon returning from doing a BSc in sociology at City University in London, in 1979 she worked at Yayasan Indonesia Sejahtera (YIS, Prosperous Indonesia Foundation), a local NGO dealing in community health and development. As someone who had spent her child- and teenagehood living and studying abroad, working at YIS – albeit only for one year – gave her the opportunity to get know her own culture, people and society.

Then in 1981, at the age of  27, Julia was asked to be  guest-editor for an issue of Prisma , then the leading  scholarly journal in the country. The title of the issue was “Women in Indonesia: Between Myth, Reality, and Emancipation”, which  launched Julia’s career as an expert on gender issues. In 1991, again she reprised the role of guest-editor, for an issue on sexuality entitled “Sex in the Web of Power”, opening up a field of study previously unknown in Indonesia.

In 1998, spurred by the economic crisis, which quickly developed into a political crisis, with a group of several women activists, Julia co-founded Suara Ibu Peduli  (SIP, the Voice of Concerned Mothers).  The now famous SIP Hotel Indonesia roundabout demonstration on February 23, critical of the New Order government, was the beginning of a widespread movement which ultimately forced Gen. (ret.) Soeharto to step down.

Feeling the need to educate the electorate who for 32 years under Soeharto’s New Order regime had been depoliticized, in 1999, at the beginning of the reformation era, Julia founded Yayasan API (the Indonesian Political Almanac Foundation) and became its executive director. She was assisted by her son, Aditya Priyawardhana, and endorsed by a coalition of thirteen Indonesian NGOs. API Foundation’s first project was to compile a directory of political parties, which had exploded from three state-controlled ones to the astounding number of almost 200.

Unexpectedly, the first support she received was from the Indonesian Forum for the Environment (WALHI), a national NGO. WALHI provided the initial seed-money and institutional support. This was followed by full funding from the United Nations Development Program (UNDP).

Within a miraculous three and a half months, the 700-page political party directory was completed, just before the June elections in 1999 – Indonesia’s first democratic election. Due to the success of the directory, the next logical step was to compile a reference book on the parliament. In 2000, Julia led a team of researchers and compiled the Panduan Parlemen Indonesia (PPI, Indonesia’s Parliament Guide), taking a year to complete. It contained the profiles of 700 members of parliament, an explanation of the working mechanism of the MPR (Indonesian House of Representatives), and a history of the Indonesian parliament from 1918 to 2000.

The PPI was launched on June 26, 2001, around the time of the general assembly of the MPR, and 20 days after the death of her husband of 27 years, Ami Priyono. The PPI is probably still the most comprehensive guide on the parliament that exists, up to now. Unfortunately, due to personal reasons, Julia had to close down the API Foundation in November 2001, so was unable to continue with the important work it was doing.

Personal, Family and Cultural Backgrounds

Julia’s family hails from Priangan, West Java, the heartland of the Sundanese people, the second largest ethnic group in Indonesia. The values her family espoused were traditional and semi-religious. Her feminist stirrings developed as a result of what she felt to be differential treatment by her parents towards her and  her brother. Growing up, her father would suggest traditional female professions for her: flight attendant, secretary, or other occupations considered ‘proper for women’. Being a natural rebel, Julia baulked at the idea. “I’ve always wanted to change the world since I was a child”, she laughs, so clearly, traditional female roles was not for her.

However, this conflict of values with her family only served to sharpen her resolve to define herself according to who she felt she truly was. Although her family did not fully support her journey, she concedes that they played a role in shaping who she is now. In retrospect, her upbringing was instrumental in putting her on the path to become a leading authority on gender and sexuality issues in Indonesia.

Ironically, it was her marriage in July 1974 at age 20, to Ami Priyono, the late film director and actor, which also helped her pursue her calling. After giving birth to her son in November 1975, Julia decided to go abroad to study in the UK, defying all opposition from her family. Her mother called her “ungrateful”, but Julia felt she had to know who she was – apart from being a daughter, wife and mother. In the Indonesian traditional view, the ultimate aim in life is for a woman to have a family – and be happy and fulfilled by it. They certainly are not expected to leave their family behind to pursue an education or career.

Ostensibly she went to London, enrolling at City University, to obtain a BSc in Sociology. But in fact it was also a journey in search of identity, full of painful stumbling blocks, criticism even condemnation for “defying nature”: motherhood and being a wife. While initially opposed to her studying abroad, Ami eventually recognized he had married a rara avis (a rare bird), and that precisely to “keep” her, he had to let Julia go in search of her own identity. Julia feels that the feminist movement needs more supportive men like her late husband.

Women as Nonprofit Leaders

For Julia, the challenges for women in the nonprofit and private sector are similar but not quite the same. Gender has become an important aspect of development work and therefore many non-profit organizations engage women with the ability to generate social impact for other women.  Indeed there are several NGOs that work on issues such as women’s empowerment, migrant workers, domestic workers, and domestic violence in which women leaders are urgently needed.

Although NGOs are deemed as being more progressive than society at large, gender stereotypes pertaining to the women’s roles still persist. For example, women are still often relegated to so-called ‘domestic activities’, such as preparing food and drinks. Sexual harassment, even rape, also occur within the NGO movement which proves that despite progressive political proclamations, traditional gender mindsets die hard.

Whether women choose to work in the public or nonprofit sector, the reality is that women have to work twice as hard to be recognized because of the negative stereotypes that are still attached to women. According to Julia “It all depends on women, whether they are willing to take charge or not.”

About Julia Suryakusuma 

JuliaBorn in New Delhi, India, on July 19, 1954 to a diplomat family, Julia Suryakusuma grew-up overseas and spent her childhood and teenage years moving around. She grew up in London, Budapest and Rome. Starting her education in London at the age of six is the reason for her native fluency in English, while her education at Marymount International High School in Rome developed her critical and analytical thinking. It was also there that she developed an interest in philosophy.

She continued to develop her career as an independent scholar and freelance writer by writing both scholarly papers and essays as well as journalistic articles, features and columns in both national and international publications. Her MA thesis, State Ibuism: the Social Construction of Womanhood (Komunitas Bambu, 2011, bilingual English and Indonesian) has been a classic for 25 years and is required reading in universities in Indonesia as well as abroad. In 2004 she published “Sex, Power and Nation”, a compilation of her scholarly works, which has also has been translated into Indonesian (as “Agama, Seks dan Kekuasaan”, Komunitas Bambu, 2012).

Julia has been writing a regular column for The Jakarta Post since 2006. Her new book, Julia’s Jihad, an anthology of columns 2006-2013, was published in English in May 2013. Julia’s Jihad exists also in Indonesia and Korean versions, is currently being translated into French, and will be translated into German, and possibly Dutch and Arabic.


The Women Leadership in Non-Profit Case Study Series is led by the Women’s Pathways to Leadership in Asia (WPLA) and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore. 

Women Leadership in the Non-Profit Sector Case Study Series: Soe Tjen Marching

Can a Chinese Minority Become a Leader? 

When asked about her rise as a leader, Soe is not quite sure how to answer the question. In her own words, she just followed her heart. However, she acknowledges that an important part of the process has been her strive to continuously work, write, and read to broaden her perspectives and think more critically. This process has led her to gain credibility in the non-profit sector, to establish an organization that promotes pluralism in the Indonesian society, and to become one of the most prominent female leaders in her country.

For Soe, becoming a leader requires fighting one’s own cowardice. She explains that most of the time, working in the non-profit area means fighting and arguing with yourself, especially on how far do you have to go and how effective will your work be. She acknowledges that at times there are compromises. Her opinions have been controversial and have made her the target of harsh criticism from religious fundamentalists groups.  These have led her to receive threats by religious fundamentalist groups. Though she is not really worried about her own safety, she is deeply concerned for the safety of those close to her,  family and friends.

Women’s Pathways to Leadership in the Nonprofit Sector

Soe Tjen Marching was born into a Chinese-minority family in Indonesia. Her father was involved in a left-wing newspaper during the Soeharto regime. His work made him the perfect target; he was imprisoned and tortured as a result of his political opinions and views. This trauma left deep marks in Soe and the rest of her family. Her mother even advised her and her siblings to stay away from politics. Not only did Soe decide to become an activist, she also found her father’s criticism against the regime, a profound influence to become a strong woman and eventually a leader. However, her decision created severe tensions in her family. Just before founding BHINNEKA, her mother was extremely worried and Soe didn’t feel her support. However, Soe never gave up her idea to make a meaningful contribution in her home country: Indonesia.

Women as Nonprofit Leaders

As a woman, many people look at her and say “How could she do that?” or even “How dare she do that?” Her Chinese Indonesian heritage, has made her an easy target of discrimination in Indonesia and often times she has been accused of being anti-nationalistic for her  severe criticism to the government and its policies. Despite these challenges, Soe feels a deep sense of commitment towards the people of Indonesia. In her definition,  being nationalistic means loyalty to the people and their rights. In her own words, there is no special recipe for women to overcome the barriers that they face in non-profit leadership and the only way to success is by following your heart.

Soe Tjen’s story is a remarkable example of why women leaders choose the non-profit sector to make a difference. Though it is not necessarily the easiest path, it is a space where they can pursue their genuine interests to spark a greater social good.

About Soe Tjen Marching

soe Tjen marching

Soe Tjen Marching is a Chinese-Indonesian writer, academic, composer, and leading activist in Indonesia. As a musician, her compositions have been played in several countries, including Japan, New Zealand and Indonesia. After finishing her undergraduate degree in Petra University Surabaya, Soe pursued a masters degree in New Zealand. She later received a doctorate degree from Monash University.

As a writer, Soe is the author of several publications and the recipient of many creative writing awards. Her book The Discrepancy Between the Public and the Private Selves of Indonesian Women was published by The Edwin Mellen Press in 2007.

Despite her success as a composer and writer, Soe remains a leading activist in her home country. In 2009, she founded BHINNEKA Magazine, a publication with the goal of promoting pluralism and gender, politics and religion. In her view, religious freedom in Indonesia was, and still is, at peril due to intolerance and violence under the flag of religion.


The Women Leadership in Non-Profit Case Study Series is led by the Women’s Pathways to Leadership in Asia (WPLA) and the Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy at the National University of Singapore. “Women Leadership in Nonprofit Case Study: Soe Tjen Marching” authored by Hendri Uulius Wijaya, a graduate student of the Lee Kuan Yew  School of Public Policy.