Singapore Health Studies

Singapore Health 2012

This is a nationally representative cross-sectional survey with the aim to estimate the prevalence of:

1. Health conditions of hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, overweight and obesity, hearing loss and chronic kidney disease, mental wellbeing and to allow comparison of these data with the National Health Survey 2010;
2. Specific health behaviours; and
3. Participation in health screening for chronic diseases, cervical cancer, breast cancer, colorectal cancer

2352 Singapore citizens and permanent residents of age 18 to 79 years old participated in the survey from August 2012 to March 2013. Overall response rate was 40%. 1956 of the participants also underwent physical examination, additional surveys and provided blood and urine samples for tests and storage.

 Interview Data  Physical Examination  Laboratory Tests
  • Socio-demographic characteristics
  • Tobacco use
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Diet (FFQ)
  • Physical activity
  • Personal medical history
  • Women’s health
  • Family medical history
  • Cancer screening practice
  • Medical treatment seeking patterns
  • Health care financing
  • Care-giving
  • Psychiatric screening (GHQ-12)
  • * Sun exposure
  • * Weight history
  • * Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  • * Cognitive test (MMSE)
  • Height, weight, hip and waist circumferences
  • Blood pressure
  • Skinfold thickness
  • Screening audiometry
  • Resting electrocardiogram
  • Serum creatinine
  • Fasting glucose (for known diabetic participants)
  • Glucose tolerance (for unknown and non-diabetic participants)
  • Blood lipids
  • HbA1c
  • Albumin/creatinine ratio
  • C-reactive protein (hsCRP)
  • Cortisol
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

* Administered only on participants who underwent the physical examination

Consent form
Data collection form

Prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing in Singaporean adults

Among 1984 participants of the SH2012 cohort who answered the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire, 256 were enrolled in a home-based overnight sleep study to estimate the prevalence of sleep-disordered breathing. Participants filled out the Epworth Sleepiness Scale questionnaire, had their weight, neck and waist circumferences measured and were fitted with a portable device (Embla Embletta® Gold) that measured the quality of sleep throughout their bed time.

Singapore Health 2

This is the second Singapore Health survey with modifications to the sampling strategy to examine if the response rate could be improved. A random sample of 15,000 households in select districts of the western, northern, downtown core and eastern areas of Singapore was invited for enumeration. One of the members in each enumerated household who was 18 to 79 years old and a Singapore citizen or permanent resident was randomly selected to participate in the survey. 2722 participated in the survey from April 2014 and ended in April 2015. 1776 participants underwent physical examination and provided blood and urine samples for tests and storage. Overall response rate was 35%.

Studies conducted within Singapore Health 2 (SH2):

Validation of self-reported physical activity a

All SH2 participants, except those with severe mobility issues, were invited to take part in this sub-study. 907 participants of this sub-study were further interviewed about their exercise efficacy and attitudes and provided an accelerometer to wear for a week to obtain data to validate self-reported physical activity levels.

Latent tuberculosis (TB) Infection prevalence survey b

All SH2 participants were interviewed about their infection history and past contact with TB patients. 1757 volunteered a blood sample to be tested by interferon gamma release assay to establish TB infection.

Calibration of urinary sodium in spot and 24-hour collections c

144 SH2 participants were enrolled in this study to calibrate urinary sodium in spot urine collections against a 24-hour urine collection. The aim is to determine if spot urine collection can substitute the 24-hour collection method for urinary sodium level measurements.

 Interview data  Physical examination  Laboratory tests
  • Socio-demographic characteristics
  • Tobacco use
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Physical activity
  • Personal medical history
  • Women’s health
  • Family medical history
  • TB and BCG vaccination history
  • Care-giving
  • Health-related Quality of Life (EQ-5D)
  • Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index
  • Psychiatric screening (GHQ-12)
  • Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6)
  • Positive Mental Health Instrument
  • Cognitive test (MMSE)
  • Height, weight, hip and waist circumferences
  • Blood pressure
  • Skinfold thickness
  • Screening audiometry
  • Resting electrocardiogram
  • a Accelerometry
  • Serum creatinine
  • Fasting glucose
  • Blood lipids
  • HbA1c
  • Albumin/creatinine ratio
  • b Quantiferon TB-Gold in-tube test
  • c Urine sodium, potassium and creatinine
  • C-reactive protein (hsCRP)
  • Cortisol
  • Interleukin-6
  • Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist

Consent form
Data collection form

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Last updated on 21 June 2017