Upper Peirce

Background & Scope

The Upper Peirce Research Program aimed to improve understanding of hydrodynamic, chemical, biological, and biochemical processes in tropical reservoirs through experimental work, modelling and advanced and innovative monitoring. This research is focused on the Upper Peirce Reservoir due to its importance as a major drinking water resource for Singapore. Four research themes are focused on:

  1. The physical processes of thermal stratification and water column mixing and the use of artificial mixing as a technique to improve water quality;
  2. Water quality and sediment processes, including external nutrient loading, sediment-water dynamics and eutrophication modelling to enhance process and system understanding in tropical reservoirs.
  3. Phytoplankton primary production and cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) scum formation, including experimental work on cell buoyancy and bloom dynamics, the further development and validation of an advanced early warning model for forecasting bloom events, and the use of innovative remote sensing tools to identify and manage cyanobacterial scums and other water quality problems, and;
  4. The development of innovative techniques to make in situ measurements of nutrients and a range of toxic chemicals, including endocrine disruptors and algal toxins in tropical reservoirs, and the development of a robust early warning system for preventing pollution events.

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Interesting Observations / Key Findings

To support the SDWA Upper Peirce project monitoring, experimental and water quality modelling objectives, an instrument platform had been deployed in the Upper Peirce Reservoir. This instrument platform provides high quality, high frequency, spatial and temporal data to:

  • better understand and describe the complexity of the system, including stratification and deoxygenation processes as well as nutrient availability and phytoplankton dynamics
  • provide detailed information for comparative studies, long term trend analyses and information of the system before restoration actions are considered
  • to support initialisation, calibration and validation of hydrodynamic and ecological models

A comprehensive water quality monitoring and experimental programwas also carried out, including assessment of spatial and temporal water quality trends, sediment composition, and experiments on sediment-water interactions.

Principal Investigators: Rajasekhar Bala (NUS), David Burger (Deltares)

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Journal Papers

  • J. He, R. Balasubramanian, D. F. Burger and Kevin Hicks (2010). Dry and Wet Atmospheric Deposition of Nitrogen and Phosphorus in A Tropical Environment.Atmospheric Environment 45:16, 2760-2768.
  • S. Karthikeyan, J. He, S. Palani, R. Balasubramanian & D.F. Burger (2009). Determination of total nitrogen in atmospheric wet and dry deposition samples. Talanta77(3): 979 – 984
  • Jun He & Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010).The Exchange of SVOCs Across The Air-Sea Interface In Singapore’s Coastal Environment. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussion 10, 1837-1852.
  • Sundarambal Palani, Pavel Tkalich and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010). Impact of Biomass Burning on Surface Water Quality in Southeast Asia through Atmospheric Deposition : Eutrophication Modeling. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussion 10, 11337-11357
  • Sundarambal Palani, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, Pavel Tkalich and Jun He (2010). Impact of Biomass Burning on Surface Water Quality in Southeast Asia through Atmospheric Deposition : Field Observations. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics Discussion 10, 11323-11336
  • Chanbasha Basheer, Huixin Yu, Shruti Pavagadhi, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian, and Hian Kee Lee (2010). Determination of aldehydes in rainwater using micro-solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. Journal of Chromatography –A  1217, 6366-6372.
  • M. Sathishkumar, A. Mahadevan, K. Vijayaraghavan, S. Pavagadhi and R. Balasubramanian (2010). Green Recovery of Gold through Biosorption, Bio-crystallization and Pyro-crystallization. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 49, 7129-7135.
  • M. Sathishkumar, S. Pavagadhi, K. Vijayaraghavan, R. Balasubramanian and S.L. Ong (2010). Experimental Studies on Removal of Microcystin-LR by Peat. Journal of Hazardous Materials 184, 417-424.
  • M. Sathishkumara, S. Pavagadhia,  A. Mahadevana, R. Balasubramanian and D.F. Burger (2010). Removal of a potent cyanobacterial hepatotoxin by peat. Journal of Environmental Science and Health 45(14): 1877-1884.
  • S. Pavagadhi, C. Basheer, R. Balasubramanian (2010). Application of ionic-liquid supported cloud point extraction for the determination of microcystin-leucine–arginine in natural waters. Analytica Chimica Acta 686: 87-92.
  • M. Sathishkumar, S. Pavagadhi, K. Vijayaraghavan, R. Balasubramanian and S.L. Ong (2011). Concomitant uptake of microcystin-LR and –RR by peat under various environmental conditions. Chemical Engineering Journal 172:754-762.
  • R. Kaushik and R Balasubramanian (2012). Assessment of Bacterial Pathogens in Fresh Rainwater and Airborne Particulate Matter using Real –Time PCR.Atmospheric Environment 46: 131-139.
  • S. Pavagadhi, Z. Gong, M.P. Hande, D.D. Dionysiou, A.A. de la Cruz and R. Balasubramanian (2012). Biochemical response of diverse organs in adult Danio rerio (zebrafish) exposed to sub-lethal concentrations of microcystin-LR and microcystin-RR: A balneation study. Aquatic Toxicology 109:1-10.
  • R.J. Krupadam, G.P. Patel and R. Balasubramanian (2012). Removal of cyanotoxins from surface water resources using reusable molecularly imprinted polymer adsorbents. Environmental Science and Pollution Research (accepted).
  • R. Kaushik and R. Balasubramanian (2012). Methods and approaches used for the detection of cyanotoxins in environmental samples: A review. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology (accepted).
  • R. Kaushik and R. Balasubramanian (2012). Influence of Air Quality on the Composition of Microbial Pathogens in Fresh Rainwater. Applied and Environmental Microbiology (accepted).

Conference Papers

  • Kaushik Rajni and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2009). Rapid Detection of Multiple Waterborne Pathogens in Singapore Natural Rain Waters Using Real Time Polymerase Reaction. Global Conference on Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water, October 5 – 8, 2009 Singapore.
  • Shruti Pavagadhi and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2009). Novel Approach for detection of cyanobacterial toxins from natural waters. Global Conference on Microbial Contaminants in Drinking Water, October 5 – 8, 2009 Singapore.
  • Shruti Pavagadhi, Muthuswamy Sathishkumar and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010). Green Synthesis of Gold (Au) nanocubes using Sargassum sp. International Conference on Chemical & Biomolecular Engineering, January 28 & 29, 2010, Singapore.
  • Jun He and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010). Atmospheric Nutrients in Southeast Asia: Identification, Quantification and Impact Assessment. A&WMA International Specialty Conference on: “Leapfrogging Opportunities for Air Quality.
  • K. Loh, B.C. Khoo and U. Uittenbogaard (2010). Mass Transfer Across Single Bubbles. The 6th International Symposium on Gas Transfer at Water Surface, Kyoto, Japan, 17-21 May 2010.
  • Rajni Kaushik and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010). Real-time PCR Detection of Live Pathogens in Airborne Particulate Matter and its impact on Water Quality.  Urban Environmental Pollution 2010, 20 – 23 June 2010, Boston, USA
  • M. Sathishkumar, A. Mahadevan, K. Vijayaraghavan, S. Pavagadhi and R. Balasubramanian (2010). Sargassum biomass mediated recovery of gold through biosorption, bio-crystallization and pyro-crystallization. The 5th International conference on Environmental Science and Technology, Co-ordinated by American academy of sciences (AAS). July 12 – 16, 2010, Houston, TX, USA
  • Shruti Pavagadhi, Gong Zhiyuan, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010). Uptake and Effects of Microcystin-LR and Microcystin-RR on Antioxidant and Detoxification Enzymes of Danio rerio (zebra fish). The 8th International Conference on Toxic Cyanobacteria, 29 August-4 September 2010 Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Muthuswamy Sathishkumar, Shruti Pavagadhi, Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010). Single and Dual-component Removal of Microcystin–LR and –RR from Aqueous Phase using Peat. The 8th International Conference on Toxic Cyanobacteria, 29 August-4 September 2010 Istanbul, Turkey.
  • Shruti Pavagadhi, Gong Zhiyuan,Siria Natera, Ute Roessener Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2010). Evaluation of cellular and tissue level biomarkers in Danio rerio (Zebra fish) on exposure to MC-LR and MC-RR. 2nd Australasian Metabolomics Conference 3-5th October, 2010, Melbourne, Australia
  • Arun Mahadevan, David Burger and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2011). Experimental Analysis of First Flush in a Construction Area. The 2011 World Environmental & Water Resources Congress, May 22-26, 2011.
  • Yong Bin Phua and Rajasekhar Balasubramanian (2011). A Study of the Relationship between Pollutant Load and Roof Runoff in an Urban Area. 15th International Rrainwater Catchment Systems Conference, Taipei, Taiwan. 28 March – 04 April 2011.
  • Hongjuan Han, David Burger, Rajasekhar Balsubrmanian, Rob Uittenbogaard, Hans Los, Hans Eikaas (2011). Three-dimensional hydrodynamic-water quality modelling in Upper Peirce Reservoir Singapore. 7th International Shallow Lake Conference, Wuxi, China, 23 to 29 April 2011
  • Jin Zhi LIM, David Burger, Hans Eikaas, Rajasekhar BALASUBRAMANIAN (2011). Assessment of Water Quality in a Tropical Reservoir. 4th IWA-ASPIRE Conference- Toward Sustainable Water Supply and Recycling System, Tokyo, Japan, 2 to 6 October 2011
  • M. Sathishkumar, S. Pavagadhi, K. Vijayaraghavan, R. Balasubramanian and S.L. Ong (2011). Simultaneous Sequestration of Microcystin-LR and –RR by Peat. 16th International Symposium on Health-Related Water Microbiology, WaterMicro 2011, IWA Conference, Rotorua, New Zealand, 18 – 24 September 2011

 

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