Philippa Levine’s essay evidences the exploitative nature of the East India Company as well as Britain’s ulterior motives for colonizing the highly profiting lands of India. While this ‘chartered corporation’ had indeed began with a desire to control the monopoly of trade in India during its formative years, the power – both economic and political – it gained eventually crystallized and catalyzed Britain’s ‘imperial interest’ to expand and conquer, making India the largest British empire in Asia.

British governance, therefore, became the central concern with and within this colony. It seems, to me, fashioned as a necessity Indians ought to receive, and received the Indians did. The implant of numerous British laws, acts and policies was arguably met with resistance only when it became an excess. Indeed, the British’s intervention on India’s “politics, economics, religion and culture [was] so fully coalesced’ that the most noted rebellion occurred only in 1857.

Prior to the outbreak of this accumulated dissatisfaction, however, ‘British definitions’ of living were already grounded amongst the Indians. And especially with ‘English-style education’ being exponentially popular then even until today, one after-thought this essay gives me is to ask: how much of modernity is actually blatant ‘westernization’?