Centre for English Language Communication
National University of Singapore
‘The fox knows many things, but the hedgehog knows one big thing.’
– Archilochus (7th century BCE)
“I actually think I’m a hedgehog who looks like a fox.” This is how David Kellogg described himself, drawing from the analogy made by British philosopher Isaiah Berlin in his essay, The Hedgehog and the Fox. Berlin (1953) classifies writers and thinkers into two main types: hedgehogs, who relate everything to a central vision, “a single, universal, organising principle in terms of which alone all that they are and say has significance”, and foxes, whose ideas and pursuits are varied and even contradictory, without any single organising principle.