Questions for Health Communicators: Tackling Income Inequality, Poverty, and Economics

By Dr. Mohan J. Dutta

Professor and Head of the Department of Communications and New Media

Director of the Center for Culture-Centered Approach to Research and Evaluation (CARE) at the National University of Singapore.

“His body had fallen

to the ground

some sixty five feet

crushed into

piles of concrete.”

I have been thinking through a recent story I read in the Guardian that documented more than 500 deaths since 2012 among Indian construction workers building the infrastructure for the 2022 World Cup in Qatar (Gibson, February 18, 2014 at, and considering the relevance of this story to our work as health communicators. I am familiar with existing scholarship within our discipline that points toward workplace safety practices, but am not quite convinced that this framework with an emphasis on encouraging individual safety practices among workers through communication offers a meaningful interpretive frame for understanding the complex structural intersections that constitute these deaths. As I struggle to find coherence in my writing, it strikes me that perhaps it is my inability to comprehend, to make sense of, to fit into a pre-existing framework the 500 deaths of Indian workers in Qatar that points toward possibilities for health communication scholarship in the future tense.

The relevance of taking communication seriously is most salient in these interstices where meaning becomes impossible, stories are disrupted, and sense making is so deeply buried in the violence of the context that it becomes inaccessible.  I am reminded of the (im)possibility of communication as I count the 500 Indian workers dead at construction sites, the 400 Nepali workers dead reported in an earlier story in the Guardian (Doward, February 15 2014 at ), and another Guardian projection of around 4000 workers dying at the construction sites in Qatar building infrastructure for the 2022 World Cup (Booth, September 16, 2013 at The context of horror is marked by the absence of the voices of the many dead workers whose bodies must now be counted.

And yet the context is also material, written into the mangled up bodies of the workers thrown off the crane reaching toward the sky to celebrate the achievement of civilization. The steel and concrete, the low wages, and unpaid for labour, these are all material. The materiality of context bears inscription of the inequalities in everyday life that we take for granted. The materiality of context, unarticulated and erased from our formalized conversations in journals, is integral to the health experiences, health negotiations, and health outcomes of communities that are disenfranchised by the excesses of global capitalism. The everyday lived experiences of culture are constituted amid the materiality of worker abuse, difficult work conditions, poor wages, lack of payment, and lack of dignity.

With three decades of free market reforms carried out across the globe in the form of structural adjustment programs and the contemporary forms of poverty reduction strategies, the financialization of the global economy, and the recent global financial crises accompanied by the material effects on many communities across the globe (from Malawi, Nigeria, and Bangladesh to US, UK, Ireland, and Greece), large sections of populations are without access to basic health resources such as food and shelter, and the basic forms of health care, even as wealth has been consolidated into the hands of the global elite. After the mortgage collapse in the US in 2008 for instance accompanied by the economic collapse, large numbers of families within the US found themselves without a shelter. Our own fieldwork in the US with the “Voices of Hunger” projects joining in chorus with voices of anthropologists and sociologists documenting the evictions, job loss, food insecurity and homelessness in US families in the backdrop of the financial crisis (see snippets from our field notes at From the boardrooms of financial transnationals to power lunches of lobbyists to the policy circles of political elites to the closed door conversations among academics, the global economy has been redone to concentrate resources in the hands of the elite.

Even as global capital fosters deep inequalities at the sites of growth in the metropolitan centers (New York, London, Hong Kong), it works its imperial logic through the exploitation of material resources in the global South. Global patterns of inequalities are created and reified through large scale urbanization, mining, and industrialization projects in the global South that are accompanied then by large migrations out of the global South to the industrialized economies at cosmopolitan centers of production that utilize migrant workers as labour on urbanization, industrialization, and growth projects. As depicted in the stories shared above, migrant workers become collaterals in a global economy that works through the very erasure of their stories of pain, suffering, and subjugation. There are no labor regulations and labour rights in these spaces of capital. The news reports documented earlier share for instance stories of the number of workers who work in slave-like conditions, not even being paid the dirt cheap salaries they are promised by recruitment agents. They lack proper access to food and shelter. And in multiple cases, the workers lack access to any health care. News stories report cases of workers who have been left untreated after a fall at a construction site.

The global dismantling of labour rights to create favorable climates for transnational capital is evident in the special economic zones (SEZs) that have been created to feed into the global economy. These SEZs, marked as spaces of exception, witness some of the worst forms of labor abuse, with long extenuating hours, low wages, and lack of unionization.  The working conditions in many of the SEZs are highly unsafe. The recent stories of the fire and collapse of Bangladeshi garment factories are one such reflection of the poor and deplorable conditions of work at global sites of production.

What does all this have to do with health communication?

Inequality is a global phenomenon. And it is an overarching challenge for health communicators how to understand these inequalities, how to make sense of them, and how to craft messages, discourses, and social change processes so these inequalities can be addressed at local, national, and global levels. With most of our training on individual-level behavior change and lifestyle modification, health communication has broadly been configured in a narrowly conceived logic of individual action. We need to recognize that this is an ideology that is situated in roots of World War II propaganda and subsequent Cold War intervention. The idea that encouraging individuals to adopt healthy behaviors is an accomodationist approach to health, one that is expected to bring about health, well-being, and development without rattling the status quo through structural transformations. Structures can be left intact without collective participation in processes of change and transformation. The political and economic elite can continue to extract resources from economies as long as communication reifies messages of healthy eating, exercising, and screening to the poor and the disenfranchised.  Closely questioning the hegemony of individual behavior change interventions pushes us to consider the value of our own work, the impact of the work, the effects sizes and sustainability of the behaviors promoted, the relationship of the behaviors to other health outcomes, and the relevance of the work in the backdrop of the dismal health outcomes of disenfranchised communities.

Change therefore can come through a framework of health communication that turns the persuasive theories of communication toward addressing structural issues. Here, I find the recent work of Jeff Niederdeppe and his colleagues promising as it offers insights into causality attributions made by members of the public and the ways in which message frames can work toward shifting these causality explanations. Yet another excellent example of communication raising awareness about health inequalities is the Unnatural Causes ( series broadcast on the Public Broadcasting Service in the US. The many toolkits on the Unnatural Causes site offer excellent examples of some advocacy and activism tools.

That health is largely structural is a pivotal acknowledgment that can then work toward a collective politics of structural transformation. How can frameworks of health literacy and message framing be directed toward developing health messages describing the health inequalities and the underlying causes? How can the systematic and growing body of evidence on structural determinants of health be communicated to the public through accessible messages? How can for instance the principles of persuasion be directed toward shifting public opinion, attitudes, and behaviors toward financial and economic structures that underlie the deep health inequalities in societies across the globe? How can the traditional principles of diffusion and entertainment-education be incorporated into communication programs directed at fostering public participation in processes of global social change? How can local and community media be fostered as spaces of participation of disenfranchised communities that turn the power in the hands of communities with a commitment to transformative politics? How can the power of mainstream media and powerful lobbies as mouthpieces of transnational corporations be bypassed through creative health communication strategies? How can locally situated cultural meanings offer spaces for mobilizing participation for social change and structural transformation?

What are the processes of organizing and collective mobilization through which disenfranchised communities come together in challenging the patterns of local, national, and global inequalities? What are processes of communication through which existing political configurations can be transformed? What do the wide diversity of collective organizing in cultures across the globe teach us about alternative forms of economic organizing? How can health organizing foster creative communication strategies of change amid structural configurations that serve the power elite and thwart any opportunity for resistance through the deployment of policies, military force, police, censorship and other forms of violence? How can policy structures that silence the voices of disenfranchised communities be engaged and resisted so spaces for disenfranchised voices can be fostered?

Yet another area for health communication research is in creating spaces of meaning making in academic and policy circles that attend to the voices of disenfranchised communities. Take for instance the meanings around the affordable care act in the US. The many interpretive frames around the ACA sensitize us to the politics of access to health that is constituted amid deeply rooted political and economic agendas. Moreover, these meanings interrogate the individualized logic of commoditized health care through insurance reflected in the ACA even as the reforms offer entry points for acknowledging the large numbers of Americans that now have greater access to health care. Similarly, consider the stories of dramatic growth in Asia that are accompanied by data that document the rising inequalities in Asia. Both China and India, celebrated as poster children of liberalization have demonstrated persistent patterns and pockets of inequalities with continued extreme forms of disenfranchisement. The voices of workers, displaced indigenous communities, migrant laborers from these spaces offer alternative discursive spaces that interrogate the prevailing logics of economic growth. These discursive shifts achieved through the participation of the poor in policy and knowledge platforms are pivotal as they offer completely different frameworks of interpretation. Bringing about shifts in interpretive frames through engagement in meaning making is an invaluable task for health communicators, introducing frames of social justice, equality, and human rights in discussions of global political economy. Health communication scholarship can play pivotal role in understanding the communicative processes in networks of local-global solidarity that are directed toward transformative social change. As my colleague and collaborator Professor Heather Zoller observes, health communication understood as health activism can play a vital role in approaching the politics of resistance to global capitalism as fundamentally rooted in health.

Finally, addressing the deep-seated structural inequalities that constitute poor health outcomes calls for cross-disciplinary collaborations that engage multiple methods at multiple levels. The silos of provider-patient communication, social support, workplace safety, policy communication, and communication interventions for instance might be too narrow and confining when considering complex intersections that constitute health disparities. Also, we need continued conversations with other disciplines. Conversations with economists can be guided by examination of the meanings of economic policies and the ways in which these meanings constitute health, inequality, and threats to health. Similarly, conversations with geographers on the spatial organizing of health risks offers insights into cartographies of meanings constituted amid inequalities. Sociologists examining the structural organization patterns in societies offer vital entry points for understanding the structural distribution of resources and the ways in which communication is structured amid and in turn structures these social relations and systems of organizing. Anthropologists examining the cultural meanings, frameworks and processes of interactions in deeply unequal societies offer collaborative maps for understanding the ways in which meanings are constituted in cultural narratives and the constitutive role of meanings in shaping disparities. Anthropological work in disenfranchised settings offer narrative frames for understanding lived experiences with inequalities. Policy studies scholars bring their understanding of policy formation processes to the picture, thus creating new entry points for collaboration on understanding the interpretive frames constructed in specific policies, the framing of policies, and the role of communication in engaging public opinion and public support. Collaborations with legal scholars offer potential vantage points for structurally transforming inequalities. In my own work on inequalities, I have increasingly found myself amid a wide variety of scholars who bring diverse viewpoints to the table.

Conversations such as the International Communication Association preconference on Health Disparities organized by the Health Communication division in 2012, the focus on health disparities in the Kentucky Conference in Health Communication, the “Setting the agenda for research on communication about health disparities: Public policy implications” conference organized by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Health and Society Scholars Program (RWJF-HSS) and the Annenberg School for Communication at the University of Pennsylvania are some excellent examples of agenda setting work. The recently published Journal of Communication issue on health disparities edited by Nancy Harrington and the book “Reducing Health Disparities: Communication Interventions” that Gary Kreps and I edited for Peter Lang describe some of the collaborations that are starting to take place in health communication for addressing health disparities. These collaborations are starting to draw upon lessons for health activism and health advocacy.

Most importantly, health communication scholars addressing health disparities need to craft spaces of solidarity with underserved communities, with community organizers and activists who are working everyday to fight the injustices that are reproduced by the inequalities. These struggles often take place in the streets and in public forms. This also then suggests new lessons in community collaboration, advocacy, and participation that are not otherwise offered in the disciplinary professionalization of graduate students and faculty. As the commitment to working to change policies calls for a different set of labor that is not usually acknowledged and accepted by the academic structures, vital questions arise regarding what would count toward promotion and tenure, academic success, and professional growth. In my own time commitments to the various facets of my own work, I increasingly find it difficult to carve out the time to write academic pieces. How this is to be negotiated is a challenge for work that wants to straddle the worlds of academic impact and community impact. For instance, one of my advisees Dr. Uttaran Dutta, now an Assistant Professor at Arizona State University worked with the culture-centered approach to build a hospital in an accessible mountainous province in Northeastern India (see his post on the Culture-centered Approach blog at ). I have been amazed at the leadership and labour involved in his work in collaboration with local communities, and yet the challenge that remains ahead of Uttaran is in crafting out how to write about this amazing work in academic journals in ways that would make the work publishable and would count toward his professional success within the University. In thinking through these tensions I am reminded of one of the first Communication Café conversations initiated by then editor Prof. Kathy Miller in which I had an opportunity to participate along with an amazing group of scholars, Sarah Dempsey, Lawrence Frey, Bud Goodall, Soyini Madison, Jennifer Mercieca, and Tom Nakayama (Dempsey, Dutta, Frey, Goodall, Madison, Mercieca, Nakayama, & Miller, 2011). What these conversations depicted are the struggles and negotiations of relationships and expectations in communication scholarship that seeks to work through questions of social justice.

In sum, that there are large sectors of the global population that live without basic access to health care needs to be at the heart of health communication scholarship. That there are dramatic inequalities of health experiences and health outcomes and that this is fundamentally unacceptable needs to be the focus of health communication work, raising questions of meaning about the commoditization of health. Why should fruits and vegetables be out of reach for low income communities? Why should low income communities experience greater burdens of environmental health risks? Why should underserved communities bear disproportionate burdens of disease risks? Why should health care not be accessible to all? Awareness, instead of its narrow focus on behavior modification, needs to shift its lens onto global patterns of health inequalities and the economic logics and assumptions that produce these health inequalities, turning our work toward advocacy and activism.

The story of Mohsine narrativized as a poem in the opening of this piece draws us to the challenges ahead of us as health communicators. The story of Mohsine asks us to consider seriously, “What is the value of what we do?”

From Expert Insight on “Future directions for health communication” in the Coalition for Health Communication’s blog

Five reasons why you should go for Random Blends 2014

By Dawn Tan, Media Relations, Random Blends 2014: Calibr8

For the sixth year, the Communications and New Media (CNM) department is organising Random Blends 2014: Calibr8 (  On display from March 1 to March 6, 2014, at the ArtScience™ Museum at Marina Bay Sands, Random Blends is a fine collection of interactive new media works by CNM students, ranging from interactive sequential art, game design, and interactive storytelling. Unsure if you should go for Random Blends 2014? Here are five reasons why you should!

#1: A participatory and interactive exhibition like no other.

Departing from traditional exhibitions, visitors are promised a hands-on opportunity to engage with the immersive exhibits at Random Blends. This year, the exhibits are selected based on the theme, ‘Calibr8’– a play on the word ‘Calibrate’. ‘Calibr8’ redefines the relationship between the visitors and the exhibits in the museum space. The exhibition seeks to challenge visitors’ preconceived notions of issues in our contemporary society. For a dynamic experience, get up close and personal with the exhibits and the designers!

#2: Inspiring exhibits by the masterminds behind Random Blends’ interactive works.

Want to look into  the minds of the makers of Random Blends? Come March 2, 2014, the masterminds behind the exhibits will be present to share their creative work from 1.00 p.m. to 5.00 p.m. Speak with the makers of the exhibits and learn about the inspirations and motivations behind their work.

Featured work: Se7en the Reaper. Artist: Bao Er Cong, Neo Yu Han, Regina Liew and Nadia Oon.

Featured work: Se7en the Reaper. Artist: Bao Er Cong, Neo Yu Han, Regina Liew and Nadia Oon.

#3: Opportunity to interact with and challenge fellow visitors to a game of riddles.

Unlike previous instalments of Random Blends, the organisers of this year’s exhibition have specially designed a brand new website for users to interact with other visitors throughout the exhibition. On the website, visitors can solve mind-boggling riddles, created by fellow visitors on the exhibits, or come up with their own riddles for others to solve. Throughout the exhibition, visitors will be treated to a visually and mentally stimulating experience at Random Blends!

#4: Admission is FREE for everyone.

With a smorgasbord of art, technology, media and entertainment, Random Blends is an exhibition for everyone. Regardless of age and interests, there is something for everyone at the exhibition, from new media poster designs, to interactive stories, to computer and board games, to comics and video productions. Best of all, admission to the exhibition is free!

#5: Because, why not?

More than just an exhibition, Random Blends is the pride and soul of the CNM students. Come and be intrigued by the visual feast that Random Blends has to offer– because, why not?

Random Blends 2014 will be open to the public from March 1 to March 6, 2014. Visitors can view the exhibits from 10 a.m. to 7 p.m. on weekdays and weekends. ArtScience™ Museum at Marina Bay Sands is located at 10 Bayfront Avenue. Admission to the showcase is free.

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To find out how to get to the ArtScience™ Museum at Marina Bay Sands, click here (

CNM Visitors: From De La Salle University

lasalleForty undergraduates from De La Salle University visited CNM on 19 February 2014.

After a meeting with CNM’s head of department, Professor Mohan Dutta, the students proceeded to University Town, where they sat in Dr Terence Heng’s class on culture industries, and came away with insights on the intersections among creativity, cultural work and the organizational aspects of cultural production.


Women Farmer’s Voices on Climate Change: A Culture-Centered Approach to Climate Change Adaptation

February 19, 2014, Wednesday, 3.30pm -4:30pm
CNM, AS6 #03-33, Meeting Room

Although there is increasingly scholarly work to mainstream gender in climate change adaptation literature, many studies are not grounded in lived experiences of poor women in the global South. This paper applies the culture-centered approach to climate change adaptation literature by foregrounding the voices of lower-caste women farmers’ from low-income households in a semi-arid region in south India. Based on interviews and focus groups, we find that women farmers argue government policies, such as promoting genetically modified crops, negatively affects the adaptation strategies they already practice, for example, planting a variety of climate resilient food crops to adapt to increasing uncertainty in rainfall patterns. Adaptation research and policy-making need to foreground the voices of marginalized communities such as women farmer’s to frame, implement, and assess its outcomes, in the absence of which, such policies would most likely perpetuate the gender-inequalities, and hinder equitable social change.

Jagadish Thaker (Ph.D., George Mason University) is a postdoctoral fellow at the Center for Culture-Centered Approach to Research and Evaluation (CARE), Department of Communication and New Media,NUS, Singapore. He examines ways to enhance vulnerable community’s adaptive capacity to climate change impacts, and he specializes in the fields of health communication and climate change communication.  Prior to joining NUS, he assisted Dr. Anthony Leiserowitz (Yale Project on Climate Change Communication) to conduct the first national sample survey of Indian’s climate change beliefs, attitudes, behaviors, and policy preferences, and has co-authored two reports: Climate Change in the Indian Mind, and Global Warming’s Six Indias, an audience segmentation analysis. He also worked as a research assistant on a NSF grant examining the role of American broadcast meteorologists’ as climate change communicators. Recently, his research examining the evolution of climate change discourses in India was published in Climatic Change.

Research Talk by Dr. Weiyu Zhang

The fandom publics: China’s netizen-in-making


Date & time: Feb 11, Wed, 3.30pm

Venue: CNM Meeting Room, AS6 #03-33


About the talk

This paper attempts to integrate the political economic, cross-cultural and aesthetic analyses of the fandom over foreign reality TV shows in China. Drawing evidences from our months of participant observation and 23 in-depth interviews with active fans, we first provide a historical and structural review of the virtual community of such fans. Their viewing experience, as fully mediated by the Internet, is then described in details to make clear how various forces such as the state, the global capital, and the local capital mutually influence each other in interacting with audiences. A cross-cultural comparison between foreign and local shows elicited from the interviewees is presented and their own perception regarding the impacts of such shows is documented. We conclude with a discussion on how the state has to be included in our analyses of transcultural media products as well as how the views of immaterial labor vs. fan activists can be reconciled without denying each other.


About the speaker

Dr. Weiyu Zhang is Assistant Professor at the Department of Communications and New Media, National University of Singapore. She holds a Ph.D. in Communication from Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on civic engagement and ICTs, with an emphasis on Asia. Her published works have appeared in Journal of Communication, Communication Theory, Communication Research, Information, Communication, & Society, International Communication Gazette, Computers in Human Behavior, and many others. Her recent project is to develop and examine an online platform for citizen deliberation.

The Fandom Publics: China’s Netizen-in-Making

February 12, Wednesday, 3.30pm
CNM, AS6 #03-33, Meeting Room

This presentation attempts to integrate the political economic, cross-cultural and aesthetic analyses of the fandom over foreign reality TV shows in China. Drawing evidences from our months of participant observation and 23 in-depth interviews with active fans, we first provide a historical and structural review of the virtual community of such fans. Their viewing experience, as fully mediated by the Internet, is then described in detail to make clear how various forces such as the state, the global capital, and the local capital mutually influence each other in interacting with audiences. A cross-cultural comparison between foreign and local shows elicited from the interviewees is presented and their own perception regarding the impacts of such shows is documented. We conclude with a discussion on how the state has to be included in our analyses of transcultural media products as well as how the views of immaterial labor vs. fan activists can be reconciled without denying each other.

Weiyu Zhang Weiyu Zhang is Assistant Professor at the Department of Communications and New Media, National   University of Singapore. She holds a Ph.D. in Communication from Annenberg School for Communication, University of Pennsylvania. Her research focuses on civic engagement and ICTs, with an emphasis on Asia. Her published works have appeared in Journal of Communication, Communication Theory, Communication Research, Information, Communication, & Society, International Communication Gazette, Computers in Human Behavior, and many others. Her recent project is to develop and examine an online platform for citizen deliberation.

Flipped! Where students lead the class

By Dennis Ang and Rohini Samtani, Year 2 NM Majors

Playing online games as part of attending classes. Watch videos as part of picking up new content. Being part of a class where the teacher is also considered a student. Dream school? Actually, an everyday reality for many students at the Department of Communications & New Media where some of its instructors have adopted innovative learning modes involving online tutorials, flipped classroom and peer teaching in their classes.

“I noticed both quiet concentration and unabashed laughter”, said Dr Anne-Marie Schleiner referring to the days that she experimented with augmenting classroom learning with exercises on – powerful software that gives educators more control over a popular sandbox game environment known as Minecraft – in the NM3227 Critical Game Design module.

Making learning engaging and fun is not the only reason this CNM professor is exploring a different pedagogical approach though. “With, the person in the instructor role can teleport students from one location to another in the game. She can augment or subtract a student’s capabilities. These instructor powers allow for crafting assignments with carefully controlled parameters. Yet Minecraft is still an open enough of a game to afford plenty of room for student agency and creativity”.

In the end, it is “more work all round, but it is also exciting. We have to try know things but also remain critical about what ultimately is worth the effort.”

Associate Professor Lim Sun Sun uses flipped classroom practices in the NM2209 Social Psychology of New Media module to make the precious face-to-face time at lectures more productive. “It is difficult to interact directly with many students whilst giving a lecture. The  large class sizes in some of our modules also means that lecturers will not be able to teach all tutorials and thus, will not be able to have that important direct interaction with students,” she explains.

“Flipping my class allows me to connect with students like never before,” she notes, mentioning that the concept of a flipped classroom allows the limited face-to-face time in lectures to be used more productively since students now come to class already having looked through and learnt new content when they viewed recorded lectures online. “My students felt that recorded lectures were very useful for self-paced learning. They felt greater ownership of their learning when they were given the choice to view the recorded online lectures at a time when they were most alert”.

Assistant Professor Denisa Kera experiments with other teaching models because the conventional one is “boring and creates false hierarchies”.

She had found so many things that are wrong with the way we have been used to learning things. “It starts at the basic level – from suspending who you really are in the classroom, and taking on the role of an empty vessel that needs to be managed, to reducing yourself to a small part of a system. These are things which need to be addressed and changed. I want to break the mould of one professor-to-many students and replace it with a format of many-to-many interactions and a culture that we can all learn from each other”.

A strong believer of “cultivating our ability to learn from every situation and person”, Dr Kera adopted a pedagogy in the NM3213 Digital Humanities module which puts the educator into the shoes of the educatee. “The module picks up from the idea of peer education, where the learner utilizes the available knowledge, online and offline. I crowdsourced the whole learning process so students and teachers learn not only skills and share information but in the process, we understand the various perspectives and views of different people about the subject”.

Inspired by the spirit of hackerspaces – community-operated workspaces where people with common interests come together regardless of expertise to learn, experiment and create – her classes are designed so that everyone taps into and learns from the expertise of one another. “There is no big authority, but many processes of tinkering, sharing and learning from each other, which also open some unexpected views and encounters and make the whole process more authentic and meaningful for everyone.” she said.

Students in her module have the opportunity of conducting a class that equips peers with the knowledge needed to experiment with a visualization tool and then giving an assignment which everyone – including the educator – needs to complete. “Everyone was equal, since everyone is an expert for that one week during the semester and he/she is motivated to share knowledge and prepare some creative and fun tutorial, but then also assess our performance individually and as a class. That way we share the load of work with preparation and assessment and we all learn more from each other”

“I wish I had been more active as a student. I guess I would get C, but still I will make more effort to finish the tutorials next time. I was a lousy student, I guess that was the only bad thing. Next time, the other students should be stricter with me”, she said reflecting on her performance as a student in the module. “We were all terrified at the start. But every week, we learnt something new in terms of how to prepare the tutorials and presentation.  We were able to learn from our mistakes and to address them immediately rather than wait for some forms and stuff. Then, there was this great moment when the students felt an ownership of the module and my role became more of an occasional moderator. I was not needed at all and that was the best moment in my pedagogical career so far”.

Though there may never be an education tailored for specific individuals, the approaches taken by these educators here have made it possible for students to take increased ownership of what they learn, as well as their class, be it in digital or physical space.